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Memories are thought to be due to lasting synaptic modifications in the brain. The search for memory traces has relied predominantly on determining regions that are necessary for the process. However, a more informative approach is to define the smallest sufficient set of brain structures. The rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that is ubiquitously(More)
Most attempts to localize physical correlates of memory in the central nervous system (CNS) rely on ablation techniques. This approach has the limitation of defining just one of an unknown number of structures necessary for memory formation. We have used the Drosophila rutabaga type I Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene to determine in which CNS(More)
BACKGROUND In mammals and humans, noradrenaline is a key modulator of aggression. Octopamine, a closely related biogenic amine, has been proposed to have a similar function in arthropods. However, the effect of octopamine on aggressive behavior is little understood. RESULTS An automated video analysis of aggression in male Drosophila has been developed,(More)
Biogenic amines, such as serotonin and dopamine, can be important in reinforcing associative learning. This function is evident as changes in memory performance with manipulation of either of these signals. In the insects, evidence begins to argue for a common role of dopamine in negatively reinforced memory. In contrast, the role of the serotonergic system(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster can discriminate and remember visual landmarks. It analyses selected parts of its visual environment according to a small number of pattern parameters such as size, colour or contour orientation, and stores particular parameter values. Like humans, flies recognize patterns independently of the retinal position during(More)
Memory loss occurs by diverse mechanisms, as different time constants of performance decrement and sensitivities to experimental manipulations suggest. While the phenomena of memory decay, interference, and extinction are well established behaviorally, little is known about them at the circuit or molecular level. In Drosophila, odorant memories lasting up(More)
We examined the roles of the Drosophila Gq alpha proteins (DGq) in the phototransduction pathway. The DGq proteins immunolocalized to the ocelli and all eight retinular photoreceptor cell rhabdomeres. An affinity-purified anti-DGq alpha immunoglobulin blocked the light-dependent GTP hydrolysis activity associated with Drosophila head membranes in vitro,(More)
The biogenic amines play a critical role in establishing memories. In the insects, octopamine, dopamine, and serotonin have key functions in memory formation. For Drosophila, octopamine is necessary and sufficient for appetitive olfactory memory formation. Whether octopamine plays a general role in reinforcing memories in the fly is not known. Place(More)
  • T Zars
  • 2001
Insects inhabit extreme temperature environments and have evolved mechanisms to survive there. Small insects are especially susceptible to rapid changes in body temperature. Therefore, the rapid detection of environment and body temperature is important for their survival. Little, however, is known about the thermosensors that detect those temperatures.(More)
Memories can have different strengths, largely dependent on the intensity of reinforcers encountered. The relationship between reinforcement and memory strength is evident in asymptotic memory curves, with the level of the asymptote related to the intensity of the reinforcer. Although this is likely a fundamental property of memory formation, relatively(More)