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Memories are thought to be due to lasting synaptic modifications in the brain. The search for memory traces has relied predominantly on determining regions that are necessary for the process. However, a more informative approach is to define the smallest sufficient set of brain structures. The rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that is ubiquitously(More)
Most attempts to localize physical correlates of memory in the central nervous system (CNS) rely on ablation techniques. This approach has the limitation of defining just one of an unknown number of structures necessary for memory formation. We have used the Drosophila rutabaga type I Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene to determine in which CNS(More)
BACKGROUND In mammals and humans, noradrenaline is a key modulator of aggression. Octopamine, a closely related biogenic amine, has been proposed to have a similar function in arthropods. However, the effect of octopamine on aggressive behavior is little understood. RESULTS An automated video analysis of aggression in male Drosophila has been developed,(More)
Biogenic amines, such as serotonin and dopamine, can be important in reinforcing associative learning. This function is evident as changes in memory performance with manipulation of either of these signals. In the insects, evidence begins to argue for a common role of dopamine in negatively reinforced memory. In contrast, the role of the serotonergic system(More)
Memory loss occurs by diverse mechanisms, as different time constants of performance decrement and sensitivities to experimental manipulations suggest. While the phenomena of memory decay, interference, and extinction are well established behaviorally, little is known about them at the circuit or molecular level. In Drosophila, odorant memories lasting up(More)
We examined the roles of the Drosophila Gq alpha proteins (DGq) in the phototransduction pathway. The DGq proteins immunolocalized to the ocelli and all eight retinular photoreceptor cell rhabdomeres. An affinity-purified anti-DGq alpha immunoglobulin blocked the light-dependent GTP hydrolysis activity associated with Drosophila head membranes in vitro,(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster can discriminate and remember visual landmarks. It analyses selected parts of its visual environment according to a small number of pattern parameters such as size, colour or contour orientation, and stores particular parameter values. Like humans, flies recognize patterns independently of the retinal position during(More)
Memories can have different strengths, largely dependent on the intensity of reinforcers encountered. The relationship between reinforcement and memory strength is evident in asymptotic memory curves, with the level of the asymptote related to the intensity of the reinforcer. Although this is likely a fundamental property of memory formation, relatively(More)
The rich behavioral repertoire that Drosophila use to navigate in their natural environment suggests that flies can use memories to inform decisions. Development of paradigms to examine memories that restrict behavioral choice was essential in furthering our understanding of the genetics and neural systems of memory formation in the fly. Olfactory, visual,(More)
Heterotrimeric G-proteins relay signals between membrane-bound receptors and downstream effectors. Little is known, however, about the regulation of Galpha subunit localization within the natural endogenous environment of a specialized signaling cell. Here we show, using live Drosophila flies, that light causes massive and reversible translocation of the(More)