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The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete(More)
Although fluctuations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration have a crucial role in relaying intracellular messages in the cell, the dynamics of Ca2+ storage in and release from intracellular sequestering compartments remains poorly understood. The rapid release of stored Ca2+ requires large concentration gradients that had been thought to result from low-affinity(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that potent anti-HIV-1 activity is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however, the effects of this immune pressure on viral transmission and evolution have not been determined. Here we investigate mother-child transmission in the setting of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 expression, selected for analysis because it(More)
More than 30 years ago, Douglas (Douglas & Rubin, 1961; Douglas, 1968) proposed that intracellular Ca2+ controls stimulus-secretion coupling in endocrine cells, and Katz & Miledi (1967; Katz, 1969) proposed that intracellular Ca2+ ions control the rapid release of neurotransmitters from synapses. These related hypotheses have been amply confirmed in(More)
1. The mammalian brain ventricles are lined with ciliated ependymal cells. As yet little is known about the mechanisms by which neurotransmitters regulate cilia beat frequency (CBF). 2. Application of 5-HT to ependymal cells in cultured rat brainstem slices caused CBF to increase. 5-HT had an EC50 of 30 microM and at 100 microM attained a near-maximal CBF(More)
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