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Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF-1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is expressed in pre-B and T lymphocytes of adult mice, and in the neural crest, mesencephalon, tooth germs, whisker follicles, and other sites during embryogenesis. We have generated mice carrying a homozygous germ-line mutation in the LEF-1 gene that eliminates its protein(More)
Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying a short template sequence within its telomerase RNA component. We delineated nucleotides and base-pairings within a previously mapped central domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA (TLC1) that are important for telomerase function and for binding to the telomerase catalytic protein Est2p.(More)
A homozygous mutation in the kinase domain of ZAP-70, a T cell receptor-associated protein tyrosine kinase, produced a distinctive form of human severe combined immunodeficiency. Manifestations of this disorder included profound immunodeficiency, absence of peripheral CD8+ T cells, and abundant peripheral CD4+ T cells that were refractory to T cell(More)
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a parasitic disease caused by several species of schistosome worms (blood flukes). The key pathogenic event in this disease is the formation of granulomas around schistosome eggs trapped in portal venules of the liver. Granulomas are a distinctive form of chronic inflammation characterized by localized aggregation of activated(More)
The Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that is essential for viral replication. Here we present evidence that Rev is a stable oligomer both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of Rev mutants indicates that oligomerization is essential for RNA binding and hence Rev function. The oligomerization and RNA(More)
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. The cis-acting signals that allow these viral RNA segments (vRNAs) to be packaged into influenza virus particles have not been fully elucidated, although the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of each vRNA are known to be required. Efficient packaging of the NA, HA, and NS(More)
The packaging signal of HIV-1 RNA contains a stem-loop structure, SL1, which serves as the dimerization initiation site for two identical copies of the genome and is important for packaging of the RNA genome into the budding virion and for overall infectivity. SL1 spontaneously dimerizes via a palindromic hexanucleotide sequence in its apical loop, forming(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an integral role in T cell activation and differentiation. Defects in the Src-family PTKs in mice and in T cell lines have resulted in variable defects in thymic development and in T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction. Here, three siblings are described with an autosomal recessive form of severe combined(More)
The selective encapsidation of retroviral RNA requires sequences in the Gag protein, as well as a cis-acting RNA packaging signal (psi site) near the 5' end of the genomic transcript. Gag protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has recently been found to bind specifically to the HIV-1 psi element in vitro. Here we report studies aimed at(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivator Rev is a nuclear protein that regulates expression of certain HIV-1 transcripts by binding to an RNA target element (the RRE) present in these transcripts. A short arginine-rich sequence in Rev contains the signals required to direct this protein into nuclei, where it associates preferentially(More)