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Ammonia-oxidizing archaea are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments and now thought to be significant contributors to carbon and nitrogen cycling. The isolation of Candidatus "Nitrosopumilus maritimus" strain SCM1 provided the opportunity for linking its chemolithotrophic physiology with a genomic inventory of the globally distributed archaea.(More)
AIMS To compare methods available to correct the magnification of images that result from the optics of the eye and identify errors, and source of error, of the methods. METHODS 11 methods were applied to ocular biometry data from three independent cohorts. Each method was compared with the method of Bennett, which uses most biometric data. The difference(More)
Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such(More)
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been widely used to generate high-resolution 3-D tissue images from small animals nondestructively, especially for mineralized skeletal tissues. However, its application to the analysis of soft cardiovascular tissues has been limited by poor inter-tissue contrast. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that contrast(More)
Heart failure is a major killer worldwide. Atrioventricular conduction block is common in heart failure; it is associated with worse outcomes and can lead to syncope and bradycardic death. We examine the effect of heart failure on anatomical and ion channel remodelling in the rabbit atrioventricular junction (AVJ). Heart failure was induced in New Zealand(More)
The effect of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and iodine solution (IKI) staining was investigated as a method of enhancing contrast in the X-ray computed tomography of porcine anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and patellar tendons (PT). We show that PTA enhanced surface contrast, but was ineffective at penetrating samples, whereas IKI penetrated more effectively(More)
Recent studies introduced intensity based structure tensor analysis to extract the myocardium structure from micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) images. The implementation of this method is empirical and encounters difficulties in validating the results. In this study, we performed series of tests using structure tensor analysis on synthetic tissue(More)
X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text]), has been used in(More)
X-ray computed tomography has become an important tool for studying the microstructures of biological soft tissues, such as ligaments and tendons. Due to the low X-ray attenuation of such tissues, chemical contrast agents are often necessary to enhance contrast during scanning. In this article, the effects of using three different contrast agents--iodine(More)
The effect of adsorbed ions and pH on the adsorption of several purine and pyrimidine nucleotides on montmorillonite was studied. The cations used to prepare homoionic montmorillonite was Na+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. The nucleotides studied were 5'-,3'-, and 2'-AMP, and 5'-CMP in the pH range 2 through 12. The results show that(More)