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In genetically transformed plants, transgene silencing has been correlated with multiple and complex insertions of foreign DNA, e.g. T-DNA and vector backbone sequences. Occasionally, single-copy transgenes also suffer transgene silencing. We have compared integration patterns and T-DNA/plant DNA junctions in a collection of 37 single-copy T-DNA-transformed(More)
Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are thiol-dependent antioxidants containing one (1-cysteine [-Cys]) or two (2-Cys) conserved Cys residues that protect lipids, enzymes, and DNA against reactive oxygen species. In plants, the 1-Cys Prxs are highly expressed during late seed development, and the expression pattern is dormancy related in mature seeds. We have expressed(More)
Animal proteins that contain a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) are suggested to provide a link between DNA methylation, chromatin remodelling and gene silencing. However, some MBD proteins reside in chromatin remodelling complexes, but do not have specific affinity for methylated DNA. It has recently been shown that the Arabidopsis genome contains 12(More)
Uridine at the wobble position of tRNA is usually modified, and modification is required for accurate and efficient protein translation. In eukaryotes, wobble uridines are modified into 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm(5)U), 5-carbamoylmethyluridine (ncm(5)U) or derivatives thereof. Here, we demonstrate, both by in vitro and in vivo studies, that the(More)
The Escherichia coli AlkB protein (EcAlkB) is a DNA repair enzyme which reverses methylation damage such as 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC). The mammalian AlkB homologues ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 display EcAlkB-like repair activity in vitro, but their substrate specificities are different, and ALKBH2 is the main DNA repair enzyme for 1-meA in(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) has become an invaluable tool for functional genomics. A critical use of this tool depends on an understanding of the factors that determine the specificity and activity of the active agent, small interfering RNA (siRNA). Several studies have concluded that tolerance of mutations can be considerable and hence lead to off-target(More)
In a collection of 111 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines, silencing of the nptII gene was observed in 62 (56%) of the lines and three distinct nptII-silencing phenotypes were identified. Two T-DNA constructs were used, which differed in distance and orientation of the marker gene relative to the border sequences. Comparison of the sets of lines(More)
Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) processes Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis, and FEN1 is involved in several DNA repair pathways. The interaction of FEN1 with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor is central to the function of FEN1 in both DNA replication and repair. Here we present two gene-targeted mice with(More)
The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase AlkB from E. coli is a demethylase which repairs alkyl lesions in DNA, as well as RNA, through a direct reversal mechanism. Humans possess nine AlkB homologs (ALKBH1-8 and FTO). ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 display demethylase activities corresponding to that of AlkB, and both ALKBH8 and FTO are RNA(More)
Genetically modified mouse models are a powerful approach to study the relation of a single gene-deletion to processes such as mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The generation of base excision repair (BER) deficient mouse models has resulted in a re-examination of the cellular defence mechanisms that exist to counteract DNA base damage. This review discusses(More)