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Newly synthesized proteins that leave the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are funnelled through the Golgi complex before being sorted for transport to their different final destinations. Traditional approaches have elucidated the biochemical requirements for such transport and have established a role for transport intermediates. New techniques for tagging(More)
The flow of material from peripheral, early endosomes to late endosomes requires microtubules and is thought to be facilitated by the minus end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin. The microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 may also play a role by providing an early link to endosomes. Here, we show that perturbation of dynactin(More)
We use both in vitro and in vivo approaches to examine the roles of Eg5 (kinesin-related protein), cytoplasmic dynein, and dynactin in the organization of the microtubules and the localization of NuMA (Nu-clear protein that associates with the Mitotic Apparatus) at the polar ends of the mammalian mitotic spindle. Perturbation of the function of Eg5 through(More)
Although cytoplasmic dynein is known to attach to microtubules and translocate toward their minus ends, dynein's ability to serve in vitro as a minus end-directed transporter of membranous organelles depends on additional soluble factors. We show here that a approximately 20S polypeptide complex (referred to as Activator I; Schroer, T. A., and M.P. Sheetz.(More)
The dynactin complex visualized by deepetch electron microscopy appears as a short filament 37-nm in length, which resembles F-actin, plus a thinner, laterally oriented filament that terminates in two globular heads. The locations of several of the constituent polypeptides were identified on this structure by applying antibodies to decorate the dynactin(More)
What is the origin of the forces generating chromosome and spindle movements in mitosis? Both microtubule dynamics and microtubule-dependent motors have been proposed as the source of these motor forces. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin are two soluble proteins that power membranous organelle movements on microtubules. Kinesin directs movement of organelles(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein supports long-range intracellular movements of cargo in vivo but does not appear to be a processive motor protein by itself. We show here that the dynein activator, dynactin, binds microtubules and increases the average length of cytoplasmic-dynein-driven movements without affecting the velocity or microtubule-stimulated ATPase kinetics(More)
During prophase in higher cells, centrosomes localize to deep invaginations in the nuclear envelope in a microtubule-dependent process. Loss of nuclear membranes in prometaphase commences in regions of the nuclear envelope that lie outside of these invaginations. Dynein and dynactin complex components concentrate on the nuclear envelope prior to any changes(More)
The multisubunit protein, dynactin, is a critical component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor machinery. Dynactin contains two distinct structural domains: a projecting sidearm that interacts with dynein and an actin-like minifilament backbone that is thought to bind cargo. Here, we use biochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular cloning techniques to obtain(More)
We have evaluated the utility of the hepatoma-derived hybrid cell line, WIF-B, for in vitro studies of polarized hepatocyte functions. The majority (> 70%) of cells in confluent culture formed closed spaces with adjacent cells. These bile canalicular-like spaces (BC) accumulated fluorescein, a property of bile canaliculi in vivo. By indirect(More)