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Newly synthesized proteins that leave the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are funnelled through the Golgi complex before being sorted for transport to their different final destinations. Traditional approaches have elucidated the biochemical requirements for such transport and have established a role for transport intermediates. New techniques for tagging(More)
The flow of material from peripheral, early endosomes to late endosomes requires microtubules and is thought to be facilitated by the minus end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin. The microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 may also play a role by providing an early link to endosomes. Here, we show that perturbation of dynactin(More)
The multiprotein complex, dynactin, is an integral part of the cytoplasmic dynein motor and is required for dynein-based motility in vitro and in vivo. In living cells, perturbation of the dynein-dynactin interaction profoundly blocks mitotic spindle assembly, and inhibition or depletion of dynein or dynactin from meiotic or mitotic cell extracts prevents(More)
What is the origin of the forces generating chromosome and spindle movements in mitosis? Both microtubule dynamics and microtubule-dependent motors have been proposed as the source of these motor forces. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin are two soluble proteins that power membranous organelle movements on microtubules. Kinesin directs movement of organelles(More)
During prophase in higher cells, centrosomes localize to deep invaginations in the nuclear envelope in a microtubule-dependent process. Loss of nuclear membranes in prometaphase commences in regions of the nuclear envelope that lie outside of these invaginations. Dynein and dynactin complex components concentrate on the nuclear envelope prior to any changes(More)
We have evaluated the utility of the hepatoma-derived hybrid cell line, WIF-B, for in vitro studies of polarized hepatocyte functions. The majority (> 70%) of cells in confluent culture formed closed spaces with adjacent cells. These bile canalicular-like spaces (BC) accumulated fluorescein, a property of bile canaliculi in vivo. By indirect(More)
We use both in vitro and in vivo approaches to examine the roles of Eg5 (kinesin-related protein), cytoplasmic dynein, and dynactin in the organization of the microtubules and the localization of NuMA (Nu-clear protein that associates with the Mitotic Apparatus) at the polar ends of the mammalian mitotic spindle. Perturbation of the function of Eg5 through(More)
Mammalian cells typically contain hundreds of peroxisomes but can increase peroxisome abundance further in response to extracellular stimuli. We report here the identification and characterization of two novel human peroxisomal membrane proteins, PEX11alpha and PEX11beta. Overexpression of the human PEX11beta gene alone was sufficient to induce peroxisome(More)
Although cytoplasmic dynein is known to attach to microtubules and translocate toward their minus ends, dynein's ability to serve in vitro as a minus end-directed transporter of membranous organelles depends on additional soluble factors. We show here that a approximately 20S polypeptide complex (referred to as Activator I; Schroer, T. A., and M.P. Sheetz.(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein purified by nucleotide dependent microtubule affinity has significant minus end-directed vesicle motor activity that decreases with each further purification step. Highly purified dynein causes membrane vesicles to bind but not move on microtubules. We exploited these observations to develop an assay for factors that, in combination with(More)