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It is controversial whether different cognitive functions can be mapped to discrete regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The localisationist tradition has associated one cognitive function - inhibition - by turns with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), or orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Inhibition is postulated to be a(More)
Drug addiction is increasingly viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial drug use--when a drug is voluntarily taken because it has reinforcing, often hedonic, effects--through loss of control over this behavior, such that it becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Here we discuss evidence that these transitions depend on(More)
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in 13 young healthy human volunteers during performance of a probabilistic reversal-learning task. The task allowed the separate investigation of the relearning of stimulus-reward associations and the reception of negative feedback.(More)
Executive functions such as task-set switching are thought to depend on the frontal cortex. However, more precision is required in identifying which components of such high-level processes relate to which, if any, subregions of the brain. In a recent study of 19 patients with focal right frontal (RF) lesions and 17 with left frontal (LF) lesions, we found(More)
OBJECTIVE Problems with inhibiting certain pathological behaviors are integral to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania, and other putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The authors assessed and compared motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in OCD and trichotillomania for the first time, to their knowledge. METHOD The(More)
Since its conception three decades ago, the idea that the striatum consists of a dorsal sensorimotor part and a ventral portion processing limbic information has sparked a quest for functional correlates and anatomical characteristics of the striatal divisions. But this classic dorsal-ventral distinction might not offer the best view of striatal function.(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic drug use is associated with increased impulsivity, risky decision making, and impaired behavioral control, but the underlying mechanisms of this neurocognitive profile remain unclear. We investigated impulsive responding in the context of decision making, using a novel behavioral measure of reflection impulsivity: the tendency to gather(More)
OBJECTIVE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder, hypothetically underpinned by dysconnectivity of large-scale brain systems. The extent of white matter abnormalities in OCD is unknown, and the genetic basis of this disorder is poorly understood. The authors used diffusion tensor imaging, a magnetic resonance(More)
Stimulant addiction is often linked to excessive risk taking, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, but in ways that are poorly understood. We report here that a form of impulsivity in rats predicts high rates of intravenous cocaine self-administration and is associated with changes in dopamine (DA) function before drug exposure. Using positron emission(More)