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We have shown that all " single-photon " and " photon-pair " states, produced in atomic transitions, and in parametric down conversion by nonlinear optical crystals, may be represented by positive Wigner densities of the relevant sets of mode amplitudes. The light fields of all such states are represented as a real probability ensemble (not a… (More)

Studies of autoimmune disease have focused on the characteristics of the identifiable antibodies. But as our knowledge of the genes associated with the disease states expands, we understand that humans must be viewed as superorganisms in which a plethora of bacterial genomes - a metagenome - work in tandem with our own. The NIH has estimated that 90% of the… (More)

We demonstrate that the phenomenon known as Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion is really an amplification, in a nonlinear crystal pumped by a laser, of certain pairs of modes of the electromagnetic zeropoint field. The demonstration is achieved by showing the existence of a related phenomenon, Spontaneous Parametric Up Conversion. This phenomenon, once… (More)

In a series of articles we have shown that all parametric-down-conversion processes, both of type-I and type-II, may be described by a positive Wigner density. These results, together with our description of how light detectors subtract the zeropoint radiation, indicated the possibility of a completely local realist description of all these processes. In… (More)

It is argued that, in order for the gravitational field to be propagated as a wave, it is necessary for it to satisfy a further set of field equations, in addition to those of Einstein and Hilbert, and these equations mean there is a preferred coordinate frame, called the Global Inertial Frame, giving rise to a unique metric. The implication is that a true… (More)

- Alberto Casado, Trevor Marshall, Ramón Risco-Delgado
- 2002

In previous articles we have developed a theory of down conversion in nonlinear crystals, based on the Wigner representation of the radiation field. Taking advantage of the fact that the Wigner function is always positive in parametric down conversion experiments, we construct a local hidden variables model where the amplitudes of the field modes are taken… (More)

This article argues that a consistent description is possible for gravitationally collapsed bodies, in which collapse stops before the object reaches its gravitational radius, the density reaching a maximum close to the surface and then decreasing towards the centre. The way towards such a description was indicated in the classic Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS)… (More)

Type one diabetes (T1D: (juvenile onset) whilst being a chronic disease, the defining feature of which is the destruction of the insulin-secreting beta-cells and subsequent dependence on exogenous insulin, is possessing with hallmark characteristics of the complex T cell-mediated autoimmunity superimposed on genetic susceptibility. Both genetic and… (More)

It is shown that the description of collapse given by the classic model of Oppenheimer and Snyder fails to satisfy a crucial matching condition at the surface of the ball. After correcting the model so that the interior and exterior metrics match correctly, it is established that the contraction process stops at the Schwarzschild radius, that there is an… (More)

The theory of parametric down conversion of the vacuum, based on a real zeropoint, or " vacuum " electromagnetic field, has been treated in earlier articles. The same theory predicts a hitherto unsuspected phenomenon — parametric up conversion of the vacuum. This article describes how the phenomenon may be demonstrated experimentally.

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