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Nipah virus causes periodic livestock and human disease with high case fatality rate, and consequent major economic, social and psychological impacts. Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are the natural reservoir. In this study, we used real time PCR to screen the saliva and urine of P. vampyrus from North Sumatera for Nipah virus genome. A conventional(More)
Mobile robots operating in unknown environments need to build maps. To do so they must have an exploration algorithm to plan a path. This algorithm should guarantee that the whole of the environment, or at least some designated area, will be mapped. The path should also be optimal in some sense and not simply a "random walk" which is clearly inefficient.(More)
PROBLEM The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a guideline with 10 control measures to reduce transmission of A(H5N1) avian influenza virus in markets in low-resource settings. The practical aspects of guide implementation have never been described. APPROACH WHO's guideline was implemented in two Indonesian markets in the city of Makassar to try to(More)
Cheap digital cameras are readily available. They can be mounted on robots and used to build maps of the surrounding environment. However, these cameras suffer from several drawbacks such as a narrow field of view, low resolution and limited range due to perspective. These limitations can cause traditional approaches to Simultaneous Localization and Mapping(More)