Learn More
Mammalian cells contain different phospholipase D enzymes (PLDs) whose distinct physiological roles are poorly understood and whose products have not been characterized. The development of porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cell lines able to overexpress PLD-1b or -2a under the control of an inducible promoter has enabled us to characterize both the substrate(More)
Stimulation of cells with certain agonists often activates both phospholipases C and D. These generate diacylglycerol and phosphatidate, respectively, although the two lipids are also apparently interconvertable through the actions of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and diacylglycerol kinase. Diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C while one role for(More)
In eukaryotes, many receptor agonists use phospholipase-generated lipids as intracellular messengers. Receptor occupation stimulates the production of polyunsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerols by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate specific phospholipases C and/or of mono-unsaturated and saturated phosphatidates by phospholipase-D-catalysed phosphatidylcholine(More)
An essential step in Drosophila phototransduction is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) to generate a second messenger that opens the light-activated channels TRP and TRPL. Although the identity of this messenger remains unknown, recent evidence has implicated diacylglycerol kinase (DGK),(More)
Purified membrane vesicles isolated from sea urchin eggs form nuclear envelopes around sperm nuclei following GTP hydrolysis in the presence of cytosol. A low density subfraction of these vesicles (MV1), highly enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), is required for nuclear envelope formation. Membrane fusion of MV1 with a second fraction that(More)
It is now apparent that each of the known, naturally occurring polyphosphoinositides, the phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns5P), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates [PtdIns(3,4)P(2), PtdIns(3,5)P(2), PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], have distinct roles in regulating many cellular(More)
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is postulated to have both structural and signaling functions during membrane dynamics in animal cells. In this study, we show that before a critical time period during rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, elevated levels of PA disrupt membrane transport to the apical domain. Lipidomic analysis shows that(More)
Phosphatidic acid generation through activation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha has been implicated in interleukin-2-dependent T-lymphocyte proliferation. To investigate this lipid signaling in more detail, we characterized the molecular structures of the diradylglycerols and phosphatidic acids in the murine CTLL-2 T-cell line under both basal and stimulated(More)
This chapter outlines methods that can be applied to determine the levels of lipids in cells and tissues. In particular, the methods focus upon the extraction and analysis of those lipids critical for monitoring signal transduction pathways. The methods address the analysis of the phosphoinositides, the lipid agonists lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine(More)
Metalloproteinases (MMP) produced by both cancer and normal stromal fibroblast cells play a critical role in the metastatic spread of tumours, however little is known of the regulation of their release. In this report we demonstrate that breast cancer cells in culture release apparently full length soluble EMMPRIN that promotes the release of pro-MMP2 from(More)