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Mammalian cells contain different phospholipase D enzymes (PLDs) whose distinct physiological roles are poorly understood and whose products have not been characterized. The development of porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cell lines able to overexpress PLD-1b or -2a under the control of an inducible promoter has enabled us to characterize both the substrate(More)
Stimulation of cells with certain agonists often activates both phospholipases C and D. These generate diacylglycerol and phosphatidate, respectively, although the two lipids are also apparently interconvertable through the actions of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and diacylglycerol kinase. Diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C while one role for(More)
It is now apparent that each of the known, naturally occurring polyphosphoinositides, the phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns5P), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates [PtdIns(3,4)P(2), PtdIns(3,5)P(2), PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], have distinct roles in regulating many cellular(More)
An essential step in Drosophila phototransduction is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) to generate a second messenger that opens the light-activated channels TRP and TRPL. Although the identity of this messenger remains unknown, recent evidence has implicated diacylglycerol kinase (DGK),(More)
Phosphatidic acid generation through activation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha has been implicated in interleukin-2-dependent T-lymphocyte proliferation. To investigate this lipid signaling in more detail, we characterized the molecular structures of the diradylglycerols and phosphatidic acids in the murine CTLL-2 T-cell line under both basal and stimulated(More)
In eukaryotes, many receptor agonists use phospholipase-generated lipids as intracellular messengers. Receptor occupation stimulates the production of polyunsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerols by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate specific phospholipases C and/or of mono-unsaturated and saturated phosphatidates by phospholipase-D-catalysed phosphatidylcholine(More)
Metalloproteinases (MMP) produced by both cancer and normal stromal fibroblast cells play a critical role in the metastatic spread of tumours, however little is known of the regulation of their release. In this report we demonstrate that breast cancer cells in culture release apparently full length soluble EMMPRIN that promotes the release of pro-MMP2 from(More)
Cellular adhesion can be regulated by, as yet, poorly defined intracellular signalling events. Phospholipase D enzymes generate the messenger lipid phosphatidate and here we demonstrate that suppression of this reaction inhibits cellular adhesion. This effect was reversed by the addition of cell-permeable analogues of either phosphatidate or(More)
Here we identify an 11-residue helical module in the unique N-terminal region of the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4A1 that determines association with phospholipid bilayers and shows a profound selectivity for interaction with phosphatidic acid (PA). This module contains a core bilayer insertion unit that is formed by two tryptophan residues,(More)
Prostaglandin F2alpha, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated the rapid (within 25 s) generation of polyunsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) species, in particular 18:0/20:3n-9, 18:0/20:4n-6 and 18:0/20:5n-3, in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. This was followed by a second sustained phase characterised by saturated,(More)