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As the immune system develops, T cells are selected or regulated to become tolerant of self antigens and reactive against foreign antigens. In mice, the induction of such tolerance is thought to be attributable to the deletion of self-reactive cells. Here, we show that the human fetal immune system takes advantage of an additional mechanism: the generation(More)
Although the mammalian immune system is generally thought to develop in a linear fashion, findings in avian and murine species argue instead for the developmentally ordered appearance (or "layering") of distinct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that give rise to distinct lymphocyte lineages at different stages of development. Here we provide evidence of an(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that maintains homeostasis during cellular stress. Given previous findings that shorter length variants of a HO-1 promoter region GT(n) microsatellite polymorphism are associated with increased HO-1 expression in cell lines, we hypothesized that shorter variants would also be associated with increased(More)
The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14(hi)CD16(-)) and non-classical (CD14(dim)CD16(+)) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory(More)
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