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As the immune system develops, T cells are selected or regulated to become tolerant of self antigens and reactive against foreign antigens. In mice, the induction of such tolerance is thought to be attributable to the deletion of self-reactive cells. Here, we show that the human fetal immune system takes advantage of an additional mechanism: the generation(More)
Although the mammalian immune system is generally thought to develop in a linear fashion, findings in avian and murine species argue instead for the developmentally ordered appearance (or "layering") of distinct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that give rise to distinct lymphocyte lineages at different stages of development. Here we provide evidence of an(More)
Originally recognized for their role in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease, apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) have also been implicated to play a key role in several biological processes not directly related to their lipid transport function. For example, apoE4 contributes significantly to neurodegeneration in(More)
The developing fetus must actively learn to tolerate benign antigens or suffer the consequences of broken tolerance. Tolerance of self-antigens prevents development of autoimmune diseases and is achieved by both deletion of autoreactive T cell clones in the thymus (central tolerance) and by the suppressive influence of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) regulatory T(More)
Sex-based differences in CD4 T-cell (CD4) counts are well recognized, but the basis for these differences has not been identified. Conceivably, homeostatic factors may play a role in this process by regulating T-cell maintenance and repletion. Interleukin (IL)-7 is essential for normal T-cell production and homeostasis. We hypothesized that differences in(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that maintains homeostasis during cellular stress. Given previous findings that shorter length variants of a HO-1 promoter region GT(n) microsatellite polymorphism are associated with increased HO-1 expression in cell lines, we hypothesized that shorter variants would also be associated with increased(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its catabolic by-products have potent anti-inflammatory activity in many models of disease. It is not known, however, if HO-1 also plays a role in the homeostatic control of T cell activation and proliferation. We demonstrate here that the HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) induces activation, proliferation, and maturation(More)
Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated(More)
The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14(hi)CD16(-)) and non-classical (CD14(dim)CD16(+)) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory(More)
Immune tolerance between the fetus and mother represents an active process by which the developing fetus must not mount immune responses to noninherited Ags on chimeric maternal cells that reside in fetal tissue. This is, in part, mediated by the suppressive influence of CD4+FOXP3+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Fetal secondary lymphoid organs have an(More)
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