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Current models evoke the plasma membrane (PM) as the exclusive platform from which Ras regulates signalling. We developed a fluorescent probe that reports where and when Ras is activated in living cells. We show that oncogenic H-Ras and N-Ras engage Raf-1 on the Golgi and that endogenous Ras and unpalmitoylated H-Ras are activated in response to mitogens on(More)
The protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 plays an essential role in growth factor and integrin signaling, and Shp2 mutations cause developmental defects and/or malignancy. Previous work has placed Shp2 upstream of Ras. However, the mechanism of Shp2 action and its substrate(s) are poorly defined. Additional Shp2 functions downstream of, or parallel to, Ras/Erk(More)
PURPOSE Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (deletion in exon 19 or L858R) show an impressive progression-free survival of 14 months when treated with erlotinib. However, the presence of EGFR mutations can only imperfectly predict outcome. We hypothesized that progression-free(More)
Human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating mutations in EGFR frequently respond to treatment with EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, but responses are not durable, as tumors acquire resistance. Secondary mutations in EGFR (such as T790M) or upregulation of the MET kinase are found in over 50% of resistant(More)
Rap1 and Ras are closely related GTPases that share some effectors but have distinct functions. We studied the subcellular localization of Rap1 and its sites of activation in living cells. Both GFP-tagged Rap1 and endogenous Rap1 were localized to the plasma membrane (PM) and endosomes. The PM association of GFP-Rap1 was dependent on GTP binding, and(More)
K-Ras associates with the plasma membrane (PM) through farnesylation that functions in conjunction with an adjacent polybasic sequence. We show that phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) of S181 within the polybasic region promotes rapid dissociation of K-Ras from the PM and association with intracellular membranes, including the outer membrane of(More)
Receptor-mediated increases in the concentration of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) are responsible for controlling a plethora of physiological processes including gene expression, secretion, contraction, proliferation, neural signalling, and learning. Increases in [Ca2+]i often occur as repetitive Ca2+ spikes or oscillations. Induced by electrical or(More)
Talin and RapL are components of molecular pathways that regulate the avidity of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) for its ligand, intercellular adhesion molecule 1. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of LFA-1 affinity regulation and signaling and discuss a scenario for how Talin and Rap1 might act in(More)
Non-small-cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at the metastatic stage, with median survival of just 1 year. The identification of driver mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as the primary oncogenic event in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas led to a model of targeted treatment and genetic profiling of the disease. EGFR tyrosine kinase(More)
Ras proteins regulate cellular growth and differentiation, and are mutated in 30% of cancers. We have shown recently that Ras is activated on and transmits signals from the Golgi apparatus as well as the plasma membrane but the mechanism of compartmentalized signalling was not determined. Here we show that, in response to Src-dependent activation of(More)