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The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric-acid)-containing periglomerular (PG) cells provide the first level of inhibition to mitral and tufted (M/T) cells, the output neurons of the olfactory bulb. We find that stimulation of PG cells of the rat olfactory bulb results in self-inhibition: release of GABA from an individual PG cell activates GABA(A) receptors on the same(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at central synapses, and their conductance determines in part the size of EPSCs. The conductance of a recombinant AMPA receptor depends on the number of agonist molecules bound to the channel. Here we tested whether native AMPA and kainate receptors show this behavior in(More)
The single-channel properties of AMPA receptors can affect information processing in neurons by influencing the amplitude and kinetics of synaptic currents, yet little is known about the unitary properties of native AMPA receptors in situ. Using whole-cell and outside-out patch-clamp recordings from granule cells in acute cerebellar slices, we found that(More)
The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is found in mammalian brain and at high concentrations in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia. We show here that insulin causes an acute rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these neurons and triggers release of neuropeptide. The insulin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pool differs(More)
1. Although glutamate receptors have been shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, a developmental role for kainate-type receptors has not been described. In addition, the single-channel properties of native kainate receptors have not been studied in situ. We have characterized the electrophysiological properties of native kainate receptors of granule(More)
Angiotensin II (ANG II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) act on area postrema (AP) neurons to modulate the baroreflex. Because activation of AP neurons by either ANG II or AVP increases intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), the goal of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the [Ca2+]i responses to ANG II and AVP. Neurons were recovered(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B.(More)
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