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It has been proposed that the wing bud is induced by some axial influence at a specific confined location and that the ZPA is the residual influence of such induction. The purpose of the present investigation was to test this hypothesis. Tantalum foil barriers were placed lateral to the mesonephric duct and parallel to the long axis of the embryo in the(More)
In order for the limb to be useful in the evaluation of early determinants of morphogenesis, it is necessary to understand some of the characteristics associated with "limbness" and, more importantly at the beginning at least, it is necessary to know what regions of the early embryo exhibit limbness qualities. Previous investigators have assumed, without(More)
Harrison (1918: J. Exp. Zool. 25: 413-461) described a developmental field as an "equipotential self-differentiating system." The present study was undertaken to address the question: To what extent can be pre-limb territory of a chick embryo be considered a developmental field? To what extent is the chick pre-limb territory an equipotential(More)
In this commentary, we describe a model to explain the mechanism of the embryopathy of thalidomide. We propose that thalidomide affects the following pathway during development: insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) stimulation of the transcription of alphav and beta3 integrin subunit genes. The resulting alphavbeta3(More)
We propose that thalidomide affects the following pathway during limb development: Growth factors (FGF-2 and IGF-I) attach to receptors on limb bud mesenchymal cells and initiate some second messenger system (perhaps SP-1), which activates alphav and beta3 integrin subunit genes. The resulting alphav beta3 integrin proteins stimulate angiogenesis in the(More)
Research was undertaken to test the hypothesis that thalidomide-induced limb defects resulted from damage to the neural crest or peripheral nerves and that normal limb development depends upon either the quality (level specific) or quantity of peripheral nerves. Barriers which were placed into early chick embryos to block brachial plexus-level neural crest(More)
A differential diagnosis between fetus amorphus and placental teratoma based on the presence of an umbilical cord and/or skeletal organization in the fetus amorphus has been proposed (Fox and Butler-Manual: Journal of Pathology 88:137-140, 1964). We report a description of one new case of fetus amorphus, along with the results of a critical reexamination of(More)