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The fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a multilayered cell wall composed of an outer layer of proteins glycosylated with N- or O-linked mannosyl residues and an inner skeletal layer of beta-glucans and chitin. We demonstrate that cytokine production by human mononuclear cells or murine macrophages was markedly reduced when stimulated by C. albicans(More)
Immunological memory in vertebrates is often exclusively attributed to T and B cell function. Recently it was proposed that the enhanced and sustained innate immune responses following initial infectious exposure may also afford protection against reinfection. Testing this concept of "trained immunity," we show that mice lacking functional T and B(More)
Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which four women who were affected by either recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or onychomycosis had the early-stop-codon mutation Tyr238X in the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1. The mutated form of dectin-1 was poorly expressed, did not(More)
The recognition of peptidoglycan by cells of the innate immune system has been controversial; both TLR2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) have been implicated in this process. In the present study we demonstrate that although NOD2 is required for recognition of peptidoglycan, this leads to strong synergistic effects on TLR2-mediated(More)
Beta (1,3)-glucans represent 40% of the cell wall of the yeast Candida albicans. The dectin-1 lectin-like receptor has shown to recognize fungal beta (1,3)-glucans and induce innate immune responses. The importance of beta-glucan-dectin-1 pathways for the recognition of C. albicans by human primary blood cells has not been firmly established. In this study(More)
TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 responses in whole blood ex vivo stimulations were characterized by(More)
Upon priming with Candida albicans or with the fungal cell wall component β-glucan, monocytes respond with an increased cytokine production upon restimulation, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity." In contrast, the prestimulation of monocytes with lipopolysaccharide has long been known to induce tolerance. Because the vast majority of commensal(More)
In the present study, we investigated the functional differences between cluster of differentiation (CD)14(++) CD16(-) and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes during anti-Candida host defense. CD14(++) CD16(-) are the "classical" monocytes and represent the majority of circulating monocytes in humans, while CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes patrol the vasculature for(More)
The role of Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) in the recognition of Candida albicans and anti-Candida host defense was investigated in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Blocking TLR9 by a specific inhibitor of human TLR9 or stimulation of cells isolated from TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) mice resulted in(More)
The immune system is essential to maintain homeostasis with resident microbial populations, ensuring that the symbiotic host-microbial relationship is maintained. In parallel, commensal microbes significantly shape mammalian immunity at the host mucosal surface, as well as systemically. Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that lives as a commensal(More)