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Levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, appear to be rising rapidly in human tissues, as evidenced by studies of human breast milk. The case of the PBDEs illustrates the value of breast-milk monitoring programs in identifying important emerging pollutants, and highlights why such monitoring programs are(More)
Protein binding of hemoglobin (Hb) and bone marrow was used to compare in vivo reactions of 3 electrophilic metabolites of benzene, i.e., benzene oxide and 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone (1, 2-BQ and 1, 4-BQ), in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Following a single p.o. administration of a mixture of [14C]- and [13C6]benzene between 50 and 400 mg/kg body weight,(More)
Asthma, atopy, and related phenotypes are heterogeneous complex traits, with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Extensive research has been conducted and over hundred genes have been associated with asthma and atopy phenotypes, but many of these findings have failed to replicate in subsequent studies. To separate true associations from false(More)
Adduction of hemoglobin (Hb) and bone-marrow proteins with 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone (1,2-BQ and 1,4-BQ) and 4,4'-diphenoquinone was examined following oral administration of [13C6]benzene to F344 rats. Linear production of [13C6]1,4-BQ adducts was observed with both Hb and bone-marrow proteins over the entire range of dosages of 0-400 mg/kg. The slopes of(More)
Little is known about the formation and disposition of benzene oxide (BO), the initial metabolite arising from oxidation of benzene by cytochrome P450. In this study, reactions of BO with hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) were investigated in blood from B6C3F1 mice, F344 rats, and humans in vitro. The estimated half-lives of BO in blood were 6.6 min (mice),(More)
Benzoquinones (BQ) are genotoxic species that stem from metabolism of phenolic compounds. We have developed a method for measuring adducts of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone (1,2-BQ and 1,4-BQ) with cysteine residues of hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb). The method employs a reductive catalyst (Raney nickel) to selectively cleave sulfur-bound adducts so that they(More)
Benzene is metabolized to a number of electrophilic species that are capable of binding to both DNA and proteins. We used adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) and bone marrow proteins to study the disposition of three benzene and metabolites (benzene oxide [BO], 1,2-benzoquinone [1,2-BQ], and 1,4-benzoquinone [1,4-BQ]) in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following a single(More)
Adducts of styrene 7,8-oxide (SO) with the blood proteins, Hb and albumin (Alb), were measured following treatment of the proteins with Raney nickel (Ra-Ni) to cleave 2-phenylethanol, which was subsequently assayed. Internal standards were prepared by modifying Hb and Alb with 4-methyl-SO to produce similar adducts. In a preliminary experiment with human(More)
Tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (Cl4BQ), a metabolite of pentachlorophenol (PCP), is believed to play a role in the genotoxicity of PCP. We have developed a method to measure the adducts of Cl4BQ with cysteine residues of hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb). This method employs the use of Raney nickel to selectively cleave the sulfur-bound adducts. Adducts of Hb(More)
This study examines the initial activation of benzene, exploring key aspects of its metabolism by measurement of benzene oxide (BO) and BO-protein adducts in vitro and in vivo. To assess the potential influence of various factors on the production of BO, microsomes were prepared from tissues that were either targets of benzene toxicity, i.e. the bone marrow(More)