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Plant resistance proteins (R proteins) recognize corresponding pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins either indirectly through detection of changes in their host protein targets or through direct R-Avr protein interaction. Although indirect recognition imposes selection against Avr effector function, pathogen effector molecules recognized through direct(More)
Importin-alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes cargo proteins which contain classical monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), and facilitates their transport into the nucleus. To determine the structural basis of the recognition of the two classes of NLSs by mammalian importin-alpha, we co-crystallized an N-terminally(More)
The mammalian 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is related to a growing family of protein kinases in yeast and plants that are regulated by nutritional stress. We find the most prominent expressed form of the hepatic AMPK catalytic subunit (alpha 1) is distinct from the previously cloned kinase subunit (alpha 2). The alpha 1 (548 residues) and alpha 2(More)
Importin-alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes cargo proteins carrying conventional basic monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) and facilitates their transport into the nucleus. Bipartite NLSs contain two clusters of basic residues, connected by linkers of variable lengths. To determine the structural basis of the(More)
Proteins containing the classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) are imported into the nucleus by the importin-alpha/beta heterodimer. Importin-alpha contains the NLS binding site, whereas importin-beta mediates the translocation through the nuclear pore. We characterized the interactions involving importin-alpha during nuclear import using a(More)
The nuclear import of simian-virus-40 large T-antigen (tumour antigen) is enhanced via phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 at Ser112 in the vicinity of the NLS (nuclear localization sequence). To determine the structural basis of the effect of the sequences flanking the basic cluster KKKRK, and the effect of phosphorylation on the recognition of the(More)
The gene-for-gene mechanism of plant disease resistance involves direct or indirect recognition of pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins by plant resistance (R) proteins. Flax rust (Melampsora lini) AvrL567 avirulence proteins and the corresponding flax (Linum usitatissimum) L5, L6, and L7 resistance proteins interact directly. We determined the(More)
Crystals of recombinant importin alpha, the nuclear-import receptor, have been obtained at two different pH conditions by vapour diffusion using sodium citrate as precipitant and dithiothreitol as an additive. At pH 4-5, the crystals have the symmetry of the trigonal space group P3121 or P3221 (a = b = 78.0, c = 255.8 A, gamma = 120 degrees ); at pH 6-7,(More)
We present a novel protein crystallization strategy, applied to the crystallization of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transmembrane protein gp21 lacking the fusion peptide and the transmembrane domain, as a chimera with the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Crystals could not be obtained with a MBP/gp21 fusion protein in which(More)
Dun1p and Rad53p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are members of a conserved family of cell cycle checkpoint protein kinases that contain forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. Here, we demonstrate that these FHA domains contain 130-140 residues, and are thus considerably larger than previously predicted by sequence comparisons (55-75 residues). In(More)