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The response of Arabidopsis thaliana to low-oxygen stress (hypoxia), such as during shoot submergence or root waterlogging, includes increasing the levels of ∼50 hypoxia-responsive gene transcripts, many of which encode enzymes associated with anaerobic metabolism. Upregulation of over half of these mRNAs involves stabilization of five group VII ethylene(More)
Degradation of highly abundant stromal proteins plays an important role in the nitrogen economy of the plant during senescence. Lines of evidence supporting proteolysis within the chloroplast and outside the chloroplast have been reported. Two extra-plastidic degradation pathways, chlorophagy and Rubisco Containing Bodies, rely on cytoplasmic autophagy. In(More)
UNLABELLED : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be derived from multiple tissue sources. However, the optimal source of MSCs for cell-based therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In the present experiments, we studied bone marrow (BM)-derived and embryonic stem cell-derived human MSC (ES-MSCs) as a therapeutic agent in Escherichia coli(More)
Understanding of the intracellular molecular machinery that is responsible for the complex collective behavior of multicellular populations is an exigent problem of modern biology. Quorum sensing, which allows bacteria to activate genetic programs cooperatively, provides an instructive and tractable example illuminating the causal relationships between the(More)
Agent-based simulation of large multicellular biological systems has become a viable option owing to affordable parallel computers, such as Beowulf-style clusters. We describe a scalable modular software platform that (i) provides for an easy integration of different solvers computing internal dynamics of the cells, and (ii) dynamically adapts to the(More)
The HIV fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (ENF/Fuzeon) targets the env gp41 transmembrane domain. Mutations in gp41 are associated with ENF resistance. We developed a prototype assay to genotype a 676-bp region spanning the heptad repeat domains (HR1 and HR2) of HIV-1 gp41. Plasma samples were collected from 126 HIV-1-infected blood donors in Cameroon, Brazil,(More)
A versatile microfluidic platform for the evolving molecular diagnostics industry is described. It incorporates low cost Rheonix CARD(®) (Chemistry and Reagent Device) technology to analyze a variety of clinical specimens. A patented lamination process incorporates all pumps, valves, microchannels and reaction compartments into an inexpensive disposable(More)
A diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis carries with it a lifelong progressive disease; however twenty percent of patients enjoy periods of partial to total remission. After remission, the disease will frequently plague previously unaffected joints. Life expectancy is reduced by an average of three to seven years. Complications of RA include vasculitis and(More)
By now the importance of literacy in the process of development is widely accepted. However, unlike measuring welfare or inequality, the problem of literacy measurement remains largely unexamined. Alternatives to the standard literacy rate, R, equal to the number of literate adults as a percentage of the adult population, are not well known, but this(More)
Within cells, myriad interconnected processes orchestrate the progression of gene expression from chromatin, to mRNA, and to protein. Assessment of DNA methylation, histone modification, transcript isoform abundance, and the proteome are frequently performed to examine this progression, but do not resolve many intermediary steps in the coordinated(More)