Travis Lee

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Understanding of the intracellular molecular machinery that is responsible for the complex collective behavior of multicellular populations is an exigent problem of modern biology. Quorum sensing, which allows bacteria to activate genetic programs cooperatively, provides an instructive and tractable example illuminating the causal relationships between the(More)
Agent-based simulation of large multicellular biological systems has become a viable option owing to affordable parallel computers, such as Beowulf-style clusters. We describe a scalable modular software platform that (i) provides for an easy integration of different solvers computing internal dynamics of the cells, and (ii) dynamically adapts to the(More)
Degradation of highly abundant stromal proteins plays an important role in the nitrogen economy of the plant during senescence. Lines of evidence supporting proteolysis within the chloroplast and outside the chloroplast have been reported. Two extra-plastidic degradation pathways, chlorophagy and Rubisco Containing Bodies, rely on cytoplasmic autophagy. In(More)
nvestors incur fees and expenses when purchasing and holding mutual funds. These costs include expenses that funds incur when providing portfolio management, fund administration, and other services to shareholders. Fund costs also may include sales charges that compensate investment professionals for investment advice, assistance, or services provided to(More)
It can be argued that just as there are different kinds of literacy , there are different kinds of illiteracy. A 'proximate illiterate,' i.e. an illiterate who has easy access to a literate person, is clearly better off than someone without such access. The existing literature that takes account of these differences (1) defines an illiterate person to be a(More)
published numerous studies on mutual fund fees and expenses since 1998. These studies have shown that the cost of sales loads and annual expenses paid by mutual fund shareholders has dropped sharply since 1980 and that funds pass along cost savings achieved from scale economies. Commission (SEC) has concluded that large funds generally have lower expense(More)
1 OVERVIEW Recent issues of Perspective have analyzed trends in mutual fund fees, finding that the cost of investing in equity, bond, and money market mutual funds has declined substantially over the past two decades. 2 This issue of Perspective considers a related subject, the relationship between the assets of a fund and its operating expense ratio. More(More)
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