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The reinforcement learning theory of the error-related negativity (ERN) holds that the impact of reward signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system modulates activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), alternatively disinhibiting and inhibiting the ACC following unpredicted error and reward events, respectively. According to a recent formulation of(More)
In 2 human event-related brain potential (ERP) experiments, we examined the feedback error-related negativity (fERN), an ERP component associated with reward processing by the midbrain dopamine system, and the N170, an ERP component thought to be generated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), to investigate the contributions of these neural systems toward(More)
Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggest that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by the impact of abnormal reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system on frontal brain areas that implement cognitive control. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from(More)
Recent theories of drug dependence propose that the transition from occasional recreational substance use to harmful use and dependence results from the impact of disrupted midbrain dopamine signals for reinforcement learning on frontal brain areas that implement cognitive control and decision-making. We investigated this hypothesis in humans using(More)
An influential neurocomputational theory of the biological mechanisms of decision making, the "basal ganglia go/no-go model," holds that individual variability in decision making is determined by differences in the makeup of a striatal system for approach and avoidance learning. The model has been tested empirically with the probabilistic selection task(More)
The electrophysiological response to positive and negative feedback during reinforcement learning has been well documented over the past two decades, yet, little is known about the neural response to uninformative events that often follow our actions. To address this issue, we recorded the electroencephalograph (EEG) during a time-estimation task using both(More)
OBJECTIVE Substance dependent (SD) relative to non-dependent (ND) individuals exhibit an attenuated reward positivity, an electrophysiological signal believed to index sensitivity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to rewards. Here we asked whether this altered neural response reflects a specific devaluation of monetary rewards relative to drug-related(More)
We recently demonstrated that the latency of a component of the event-related brain potential, the topographical N170 (NT170), is sensitive to the spatial location of reward-related stimuli in a virtual maze environment, occurring earlier for rewards found following rightward turns compared to leftward turns. We suggested that this NT170 latency effect may(More)
The development and expression of the midbrain dopamine system is determined in part by genetic factors that vary across individuals such that dopamine-related genes are partly responsible for addiction vulnerability. However, a complete account of how dopamine-related genes predispose individuals to drug addiction remains to be developed. Adopting an(More)
Phase reset of parahippocampal electrophysiological oscillations in the theta frequency range is said to contribute to item encoding and retrieval during spatial navigation. Although well-studied in non-human animals, this mechanism is poorly understood in humans. Previously we found that feedback stimuli presented in a virtual maze environment elicited a(More)