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Minireviews provides an opportunity to summarize existing knowledge of selected ecological areas, with special emphasis on current topics where rapid and significant advances are occurring. Reviews should be concise and not too wide-ranging. All key references should be cited. A summary is required. by vertebrates: behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary(More)
The distribution of ganglion cells in the retina determines the specific regions of the visual field with high visual acuity, and thus reflects the perception of a species' visual environment. The terrain hypothesis proposes that animals living in open areas should have a horizontal visual streak across the retina with high ganglion cell density to increase(More)
Animal-vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds(More)
Color vision is not uniform across the retina because of differences in photoreceptor density and distribution. Retinal areas with a high density of cone photoreceptors may overlap with those with a high density of ganglion cells, increasing hue discrimination. However, there are some exceptions to this cell distribution pattern, particularly in species(More)
Aircraft collisions with birds and other wildlife (wildlife strikes) pose increasing safety and fi nancial concerns to the aviation industry worldwide. Recent events such as the ditching of US Airways Flight 1549 in the Hudson River have renewed public interest in risks to aircraft posed by wildlife (Marra et al. 2009). However, wildlife biologists and(More)
The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined(More)
Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft.(More)
Pyrotechnics have long been used to frighten birds from specific areas but birds might ha-bituate to them. Anecdotal and limited published reports suggest that killing a flock member can reduce habituation. However, little behavioral work has been conducted in this area. We exposed brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) to noise from either 0.22 caliber(More)