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The molecular processes underlying alcohol dependence are not fully understood. Many characteristic behaviours result from neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic system. In addition, alcoholism is associated with a distinct neuropathology. To elucidate the molecular basis of these features, we compared the RNA expression profile of the nucleus accumbens(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism is associated with shrinkage of brain tissue and reduction in the number of neurons and dendritic arbors particularly in the prefrontal cortex. These changes correlate with the cognitive defects common in alcoholics. A recent study investigated the mRNA expression of selected genes in the prefrontal cortex and found that the levels of(More)
The hypothalamus is the central regulatory region of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. It synthesizes and secretes neuropeptide hormones, which in turn act to stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. We have undertaken a detailed MS investigation of the peptides present in the bovine(More)
The offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. In light of the evidence implicating copy number variants (CNVs) with schizophrenia and autism, we used a mouse model to explore the hypothesis that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. C57BL/6J sires that(More)
Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and(More)
Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in alcoholics. To date only limited data is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the action of alcohol and nicotine in the human brain. This study utilized gene expression(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of alcohol and tobacco co-abuse is as high as 80%. The molecular mechanism underlying this comorbidity is virtually unknown, but interactions between these drugs have important implications for the development of and recovery from drug dependence. METHODS We investigated the effects of chronic tobacco and alcohol abuse and the(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism is commonly associated with chronic smoking. A number of gene expression profiles of regions within the human mesocorticolimbic system have identified potential alcohol-sensitive genes; however, the influence of smoking on these changes was not taken into account. This study addressed the impact of alcohol and smoking on the expression(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms of exercise training induced cardiovascular protection are poorly understood. There is growing evidence that reactive oxygen species may be involved in a number of these adaptations and that antioxidants may be used to investigate this effect. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of exercise training and/or antioxidant(More)
Growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphology, and central nervous system defects are the main diagnostic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies in humans and mice have reported that the growth restriction can be prenatal or postnatal, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.We recently described a mouse model of moderate gestational ethanol(More)