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After more than 12 years of development, the ninth edition of the Present State Examination (PSE-9) was published, together with associated instruments and computer algorithm, in 1974. The system has now been expanded, in the framework of the World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Joint Project on Standardization of(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND The psychosis phenotype is generally thought of as a categorical entity. However, there is increasing evidence that psychosis exists in the population as a continuum of severity rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. AIMS To investigate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms using data from the 2000 British National(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mood, anxiety and alcohol disorders in six European countries. METHOD A representative random sample of non-institutionalized inhabitants from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain aged 18 or older (n = 21425) were interviewed between January 2001 and August 2003.(More)
In a survey of a random sample of the general population recent life events, collected and rated for long-term contextual threat according to the methods of Brown & Harris (1978), were also recorded where possible on an inventory of life event categories (Tennant & Andrews, 1977). Of the 82.5% of all events collected which were covered by the inventory, 12(More)
During the 23 years since the original work of Holmes & Rahe, research into stressful life events on human subjects has tended towards the development of longer and more complex inventories. The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) of Brugha et al., by virtue of its brevity, overcomes difficulties of clinical application. In a study of 50 psychiatric(More)
CONTEXT To our knowledge, there is no published information on the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in adults. If the prevalence of autism is increasing, rates in older adults would be expected to be lower than rates among younger adults. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of adults with ASD living in the community in(More)
BACKGROUND Paranoia is an unregarded but pervasive attribute of human populations. In this study we carried out the most comprehensive investigation so far of the demographic, economic, social and clinical correlates of self-reported paranoia in the general population. METHOD Data weighted to be nationally representative were analysed from the Adult(More)
BACKGROUND Social support theory and observational risk factor studies suggest that increased antenatal psychosocial support could prevent post-natal depression. We used empirical knowledge of risk and protective factors for post-natal depression not employed previously in order to develop and evaluate an antenatal preventive intervention. METHODS We(More)