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Kinesin heavy chain and kinesin-related polypeptides (KRPs) comprise a family of motor proteins with diverse intracellular transport functions. Using pan-kinesin peptide antibodies that react with these proteins, we have previously purified from sea urchin eggs a trimeric microtubule-binding and bundling protein, KRP (85/95) (ref. 8) comprising subunits of(More)
In the retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), catalysis by the alpha beta-heterodimer is inhibited in the dark by two identical gamma-subunits and stimulated in the light by the GTP-bearing alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin (T beta gamma-T alpha GDP). Two T alpha GTP molecules, dissociated from T beta gamma, bind to and displace(More)
Cyclic GMP has been implicated as a messenger molecule involved in visual transduction. Photoexcited rhodopsin (R*) binds to a multisubunit membrane protein called transducin (T) and stimulates the exchange of a bound GDP molecule for GTP. This leads to the release of the alpha-subunit of T with bound GTP (T alpha-GTP), which activates a cyclic GMP(More)
We seek to define the influence of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) on the GTPase activity of transducin (T). A novel stopped-flow/fast filtration apparatus [Antonny, B., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8646-8653] is used to deliver T alpha GTP free of rod outer segment (ROS) membranes to a suspension of phospholipid vesicles bearing holoPDE. As measured(More)
Plant cells assemble the bipolar spindle and phragmoplast microtubule (MT) arrays in the absence of the centrosome structure. Our recent findings in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that AUGMIN subunit3 (AUG3), a homolog of animal dim γ-tubulin 3, plays a critical role in γ-tubulin-dependent MT nucleation and amplification during mitosis. Here, we report the(More)
The single-turn GTP hydrolysis by isolated and soluble transducin has been time-resolved using a rapid flow filtration technique which takes advantage of the GTP-requiring detachment of transducin alpha-subunits (T alpha) from photoactivated rhodopsin (R*). Illuminated rod outer segment (ROS) fragments to which holo-transducin is tightly bound are retained(More)
Mouse monoclonal anti-dansyl antibodies with the same antigen-binding sites but different heavy chain constant regions were generated. The extent of segmental flexibility in times of nanoseconds and the capacity to fix complement were greatest for IgG2b, intermediate for IgG2a, and least for IgG1 and IgE. Hence, the effector functions of immunoglobulin(More)
The biochemistry of visual excitation is kinetically explored by measuring the activity of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) at light levels that activate only a few tens of rhodopsin molecules per rod. At 23 degrees C and in the presence of ATP, the pulse of PDE activity lasts 4 s (full width at half maximum). Complementing the rod outer segments (ROS) with(More)
The activation of transducin (T) by photoexcited rhodopsin (R*) is kinetically dissected within the framework of Michaelis-Menten enzymology, taking transducin as substrate of the enzyme R*. The light scattering "release" signal (Vuong, T.M., M. Chabre, and L. Stryer, 1984, Nature (Lond.). 311:659-661) was used to monitor the kinetics of transducin(More)
The response of the retinal rod cell to a dim flash lasts less than a second. This phototransduction is mediated by a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein cascade in which rhodopsin is the receptor, transducin is the G-protein, and the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) is the effector. Photoexcited rhodopsin activates transducin which in turn(More)