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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is an important, highly conserved, regulator of cell growth. Ancient among the signals that regulate mTORC1 are nutrients. Amino acids direct mTORC1 to the surface of the late endosome/lysosome, where mTORC1 becomes receptive to other inputs. However, the interplay between endosomes and mTORC1 is(More)
Under usual laboratory conditions, lysis by bacteriophage lambda requires only the holin and endolysin genes, but not the Rz and Rz1 genes, of the lysis cassette. Defects in Rz or Rz1 block lysis only in the presence of high concentrations of divalent cations. The lambda Rz and Rz1 lysis genes are remarkable in that Rz1, encoding an outer membrane(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic, immune-mediated conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapies, potentially increasing their risk of developing an infection. Empiric data suggest that vaccines are underutilized in immunocompromised patients, despite published guidelines recommending their(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors are implicated in development and tumorigenesis and dual inhibitors like sunitinib are prescribed for cancer treatment. While mammalian VEGF and PDGF receptors are present in multiple isoforms and heterodimers, Drosophila encodes one ancestral PDGF/VEGF receptor,(More)
T he American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommendations on screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have generated some controversy. In the March 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine, there is an article entitled ‘‘Screening for Liver Cancer: A Rush to Judgment’’. In it, the investigators criticize the AASLD(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Thioguanine (6-TG) has been studied as an alternative thiopurine in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Short-term safety and efficacy data were favorable. Experience with 6-TG in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia raised long-term safety concerns when implicated in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver and portal(More)
BACKGROUND 6-Thioguanine (6-TG) has been used as an alternative thiopurine for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients not responsive to or intolerant of azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). 6-TG-related hepatotoxicity, including liver biochemistry value elevations, sinusoidal collagen deposition on electron microscopy, and veno-occlusive(More)
BACKGROUND A simple treatment regimen that is effective in a broad range of patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet medical need. METHODS We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving untreated and previously treated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection,(More)
OBJECTIVE With the continued shortage of deceased donor grafts, living donor liver transplantation has become an option for adult liver transplant candidates. In the non-transplant setting, liver biopsy is typically carried out to evaluate clinical or biochemical hepatic dysfunction. In living donor liver transplantation, assessment of histological(More)
BACKGROUND In phase 2 trials, treatment with the combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3. METHODS We conducted two randomized, phase 3, open-label studies involving(More)