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OBJECTIVE With the continued shortage of deceased donor grafts, living donor liver transplantation has become an option for adult liver transplant candidates. In the non-transplant setting, liver biopsy is typically carried out to evaluate clinical or biochemical hepatic dysfunction. In living donor liver transplantation, assessment of histological(More)
Under usual laboratory conditions, lysis by bacteriophage lambda requires only the holin and endolysin genes, but not the Rz and Rz1 genes, of the lysis cassette. Defects in Rz or Rz1 block lysis only in the presence of high concentrations of divalent cations. The lambda Rz and Rz1 lysis genes are remarkable in that Rz1, encoding an outer membrane(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is an important, highly conserved, regulator of cell growth. Ancient among the signals that regulate mTORC1 are nutrients. Amino acids direct mTORC1 to the surface of the late endosome/lysosome, where mTORC1 becomes receptive to other inputs. However, the interplay between endosomes and mTORC1 is(More)
BACKGROUND 6-Thioguanine (6-TG) has been used as an alternative thiopurine for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients not responsive to or intolerant of azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). 6-TG-related hepatotoxicity, including liver biochemistry value elevations, sinusoidal collagen deposition on electron microscopy, and veno-occlusive(More)
Providing appropriate treatment and follow-up to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers and their newborns is critical in preventing HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and eradicating HBV infection. Although highly effective in preventing MTCT, standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and the hepatitis B vaccine may(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Thioguanine (6-TG) has been studied as an alternative thiopurine in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Short-term safety and efficacy data were favorable. Experience with 6-TG in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia raised long-term safety concerns when implicated in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver and portal(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation occurs in up to 78% of patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy for nonhepatic malignancies. Reactivation can lead to hepatic dysfunction, jaundice and fulminant hepatic failure. Current recommendations include screening patients at risk for HBV prior to immunosuppressive therapy and initiating antiviral(More)
Lysis inhibition (LIN) of T4-infected cells was one of the foundational experimental systems for modern molecular genetics. In LIN, secondary infection of T4-infected cells results in a dramatically protracted infection cycle in which intracellular phage and endolysin accumulation can continue for hours. At the molecular level, this is due to the inhibition(More)
BACKGROUND A simple treatment regimen that is effective in a broad range of patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet medical need. METHODS We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving untreated and previously treated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection,(More)
Bacteriophage T4 effects host lysis with a holin, T, and an endolysin, E. T and E accumulate in the membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, throughout the period of late gene expression. At an allele-specific time, T triggers to disrupt the membrane, allowing E to enter the periplasm and attack the peptidoglycan. T triggering can be blocked by secondary(More)