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FlexRay is a communication protocol heavily promoted on the market by a large group of car manufacturers and automotive electronics suppliers. However, before it can be successfully used for safety-critical applications that require predictability, timing analysis techniques are necessary for providing bounds for the message communication times. In this(More)
This paper deals with specific issues related to the design of distributed embedded systems implemented with mixed, event-triggered and time-triggered task sets, which communicate over bus protocols consisting of both static and dynamic phases. Such systems are emerging as the new standard for automotive applications. We have developed a holistic timing(More)
The incidence and prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmias identified by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (Holter) was prospectively assessed in 74 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). The criteria for diagnosis of IDC were based on clinical and cardiac catheterization findings. Holter monitoring was performed at the time(More)
To identify risk factors for restenosis, we evaluated data in 473 patients with single-vessel percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and control angiography after 6 months. Restenosis, defined as (1) loss greater than 50% of the initial gain, and (2) stenosis greater than 50% was found in 138 patients (29.2%). Univariate analysis revealed(More)
In 162 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction, combined intravenous and intracoronary thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase was initiated. In vessels that remained occluded, mechanical recanalization was performed with a 3F recanalization catheter (group I, n = 79) or a 4F Grüntzig balloon catheter (group II, n = 83). After reperfusion,(More)
A technique of combined medical and mechanical recanalization was employed in 96 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. The mean time between onset of symptoms and admission to hospital was 170 +/- 65 min (X +/- SD). After 10 +/- 16 min, 250,000 U streptokinase was administered intravenously for 20 min. Intracoronary thrombolysis was(More)
Balloon coarctation angioplasty (BCA) was performed in eight patients (five male and three female) who were 14-49 years old (mean, 27.3 years) with isolated discrete unoperated coarctation of the aorta (n = 7) and postoperative recoarctation (n = 1). BCA was successful in seven of eight patients, resulting in a decrease in the gradient (64 +/- 19 to 16 +/-(More)
An increasing number of real-time applications are today implemented using distributed heterogeneous architectures composed of interconnected networks of processors. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware and software components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. In this context, the task of designing(More)
FlexRay will very likely become the de-facto standard for in-vehicle communications. Its main advantage is the combination of high speed static and dynamic transmission of messages. In our previous work we have shown that not only the static but also the dynamic segment can be used for hard-real time communication in a deterministic manner. In this paper,(More)
Day by day, we are witnessing a considerable increase in number and range of applications which entail the use of embedded computer systems. This increase is closely followed by the growth in complexity of applications controlled by embedded systems, often involving strict timing requirements, like in the case of safety-critical applications. Efficient(More)