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The bioreductive drug, AQ4N, is metabolized under hypoxic conditions and has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of radiation and chemotherapy drugs. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in increasing the metabolism of AQ4N using a gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy. RIF-1 murine tumor cells were(More)
Reactive nitrogen species play important roles in cell signalling, but when present at high concentrations they can subject cells to nitrosative stress, which may lead to cell death. Nitric oxide (NOx) is now recognized as playing important roles in cancer aetiology and progression and it can influence the outcome of cancer treatment. It is synthesised by(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO.) derived from donor drugs has been shown to be an effective chemosensitizer in vitro. We investigated the combination of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene transfer, driven by a strong constitutive promoter (cytomegalovirus; CMV) with the DNA cross-linking agent cisplatin in mouse and human tumour cell lines. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE Antiangiogenic therapies can be an important adjunct to the management of many malignancies. Here we investigated a novel protein, FKBPL, and peptide derivative for their antiangiogenic activity and mechanism of action. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Recombinant FKBPL (rFKBPL) and its peptide derivative were assessed in a range of human microvascular(More)
PURPOSE FK506-binding protein like (FKBPL) and its peptide derivative, AD-01, have already shown tumor growth inhibition and CD44-dependent antiangiogenic activity. Here, we explore the ability of AD-01 to target CD44-positive breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Mammosphere assays and flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO(.)) is a reactive nitrogen radical produced by the NO synthase (NOS) enzymes; it affects a plethora of downstream physiological and pathological processes. The past two decades have seen an explosion in the understanding of the role of NO(.) biology, highlighting various protective and damaging modes of action. Much of the controversy(More)
Cancer gene therapy has been one of the most exciting areas of therapeutic research in the past decade. In this review, we discuss strategies to restrict transcription of transgenes to tumour cells. A range of promoters which are tissue-specific, tumour-specific, or inducible by exogenous agents are presented. Transcriptional targeting should prevent normal(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognised as one of the most important molecules influencing the development, progression and treatment of cancer. A key component of its action is as a negative and positive regulator of apoptosis. Broadly, constitutive levels of NO(nM), are capable of inhibiting numerous signalling pathways in both normal and cancer cells. These(More)
Nitric oxide is a key second messenger in most tissues, where it is generated at low concentrations, predominantly by the catalytic action of two constitutively expressed isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Both of these are found in tumours, but malignancy is also associated with the expression of high levels of the inducible isoform of NOS, which is(More)
The use of radiation-inducible promoters to drive transgene expression offers the possibility of temporal and spatial regulation of gene activation. This study assessed the potential of one such promoter element, p21(WAF1/CIP1) (WAF1), to drive expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene, which conveys sensitivity to radioiodinated(More)