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There is now little doubt of the existence of radioprotective mechanisms, or stress responses, that are upregulated in response to exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents. Phenomenologically, there are two ways in which these induced mechanisms operate. First, a small conditioning dose (generally below 30 cGy) may protect(More)
The antigenic determinants of human C4 have been defined by human IgG antisera, Rodgers (Rg) and Chido (Ch), in hemagglutination-inhibition assays (HAI). Eight (2 Rg and 6 Ch) are of high frequency, > 90% , and 1, WH, is of low frequency, 15 %. The phenotypic combinations are complex; generally, C4A expresses Rg, and C4B has Ch, but reverse antigenicities(More)
Cancer gene therapy has been one of the most exciting areas of therapeutic research in the past decade. In this review, we discuss strategies to restrict transcription of transgenes to tumour cells. A range of promoters which are tissue-specific, tumour-specific, or inducible by exogenous agents are presented. Transcriptional targeting should prevent normal(More)
An ideal cancer chemotherapeutic prodrug is completely inactive until metabolized by a tumour-specific enzyme, or by an enzyme that is only metabolically competent towards the prodrug under physiological conditions unique to the tumour. Human cancers, including colon, breast, lung, liver, kidney and prostate, are known to express cytochrome P450 (CYP)(More)
The bioreductive drug, AQ4N, is metabolized under hypoxic conditions and has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of radiation and chemotherapy drugs. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in increasing the metabolism of AQ4N using a gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy. RIF-1 murine tumor cells were(More)
The fourth component of human complement (C4) is encoded by two closely linked genes, C4A and C4B, that are part of the major histocompatibility complex. The sequence variation that accounts for the C4A and C4B isotypes has been located to four amino acid residues within the C4d fragment (Yu et al. 1986) and these residues account for the differences in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO(.)) is a reactive nitrogen radical produced by the NO synthase (NOS) enzymes; it affects a plethora of downstream physiological and pathological processes. The past two decades have seen an explosion in the understanding of the role of NO(.) biology, highlighting various protective and damaging modes of action. Much of the controversy(More)
BACKGROUND Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene therapy has been identified as a potential anti-tumour strategy. A major problem common to most gene therapy strategies is targeting of treatment to the tumour volume. In this study we report on the use of the X-ray-inducible WAF1 promoter to achieve targeting of iNOS expression to the tumour volume. (More)
Pericytes are known to communicate with endothelial cells by direct contact and by releasing cytokines such as TGF-beta. There is also strong evidence that pericytes act as regulators of endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation. We have investigated the effect of pericyte-conditioned medium (PCM) on proliferation of human microvascular endothelial(More)
Radiotherapy (RT) is a well established modality for treating many forms of cancer. However, despite many improvements in treatment planning and delivery, the total radiation dose is often too low for tumor cure, because of the risk of normal tissue damage. Gene therapy provides a new adjunctive strategy to enhance the effectiveness of RT, offering the(More)