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Bone marrow-derived cultured macrophages were infected with the pathogenic organism Mycobacterium avium. Immediately after infection and at 1 to 28 days later, cells either were stained for acid phosphatase activity or given horseradish peroxidase, which served as a pinocytotic marker. With the former, fusions between phagosomes and lysosomes exclusively(More)
In their amastigote stage, Leishmania live in mammalian macrophages within parasitophorous vacuoles (PV), organelles of phagolysosomal origin that, in macrophages activated with IFN-gamma, contain major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules apparently devoid of invariant chains. We have now studied the fate of PV-associated class II molecules(More)
Leishmania donovani amastigotes, the etiological agents of visceral leishmaniasis, are obligate intracellular parasites residing in membrane-bound compartments of macrophages called parasitophorous vacuoles (PV). The study of these organelles is of paramount importance to understanding how these parasites resist the microbicidal mechanisms of macrophages(More)
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that, as amastigotes, live in the macrophages of mammalian hosts within compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles. These organelles share features with late endosomes/lysosomes and are also involved in the trafficking of several major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded molecules. Improved knowledge of the(More)
The establishment of Leishmania in mammals depends on the transformation of metacyclic promastigotes into amastigotes within macrophages. The kinetics of this process was examined using mouse macrophages infected with metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis. The appearance of amastigote characteristics, including large lysosome-like organelles called(More)
Novel effects of cholesterol (Chol) on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cell-surface stability, internalization and function are reported. AChRs are shown to occur in the form of submicron-sized (240-280 nm) domains that remain stable at the cell-surface membrane of CHO-K1/A5 cells over a period of hours. Acute (30 min, 37 degrees C) exposure to(More)
[3H]Kainic acid ([3H]KA) is a widely used tool for studying the KA class of excitatory amino acid receptors. [3H]KA of significantly higher specific activity has become available permitting use of radioligand concentrations below the dissociation constant (K(D)) of the high-affinity binding site. We employed low radioligand (0.05-0.2 nM) and receptor(More)
The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp1) regulates macrophage activation. One of its pleiotropic effects on macrophage function is to regulate expression of major histocompatibility class II molecules. In this study macrophages stably transfected with the wild-type (infection-resistant) or the natural mutant (infection-susceptible)(More)
Macrophages are apparently the only cells that in vivo allow the growth of the intracellular pathogen Leishmania. They are thus generally considered as likely candidates for the presentation of parasite Ag to CD4+ T lymphocytes known to be involved in protective and counterprotective immune responses. In the present study, we examined whether mouse(More)
Leishmania-infected macrophages are potential antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T lymphocytes, which recognize parasite antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (Ia). However, the intracellular sites where Ia and antigens may interact are far from clear, since parasites grow within the modified lysosomal compartment of the host(More)