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During hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cells constantly differentiate into granulocytes and macrophages via a distinct differentiation program that is tightly controlled by myeloid lineage-specific transcription factors. Mice with a null mutation of IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) accumulate CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells that phenotypically and functionally(More)
The TSK/TSK mutation is embryonic lethal; embryos have been reported to die at 7-8 days of gestational age. Crossing TSK/+, IL-4+/- mice revealed that disrupting one or both IL-4 alleles allowed survival of 29 and 47%, respectively, of TSK/TSK mice. These mice failed to develop cutaneous hyperplasia but did exhibit the emphysema that is found in TSK/+ mice.(More)
Tolerance to self-antigens present in apoptotic cells is critical to maintain immune-homeostasis and prevent systemic autoimmunity. However, mechanisms that sustain self-tolerance are poorly understood. Here we show that systemic administration of apoptotic cells to mice induced splenic expression of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine(More)
Efficient apoptotic cell clearance and induction of immunologic tolerance is a critical mechanism preventing autoimmunity and associated pathology. Our laboratory has reported that apoptotic cells induce tolerance by a mechanism dependent on the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in splenic macrophages (MΦ). The(More)
Loss of tolerance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to the generation of autoantibodies, which accumulate in end-organs where they induce disease. Here we show that immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a and 2b autoantibodies are the pathogenic isotypes by recruiting FcgammaRIV expressing macrophages. Class switching, but not development, of IgM anti-self B cells(More)
Lupus, a multigenic autoimmune condition in which a breakdown of tolerance results in the development of autoantibodies, leads to a variety of pathologic outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity of factors influencing disease susceptibility, we demonstrate that the partial restoration of inhibitory Fc receptor (FcgRIIB) levels on B cells in lupus-prone mouse(More)
Marginal zone macrophages (MZMs) are a small subset of specialized splenic macrophages known to interact with apoptotic material entering the spleen from circulation. To evaluate whether MZMs regulate immunity to apoptotic material we depleted MZMs and assessed innate and adaptive immune responses to apoptotic cells administered systemically. MZM depletion(More)
The persistence of serum IgG antibodies elicited in human infants is much shorter than when such responses are elicited later in life. The reasons for this rapid waning of antigen-specific antibodies elicited in infancy are yet unknown. We have recently shown that adoptively transferred tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific plasmablasts (PBs) efficiently reach the(More)
Scleroderma is a disorder characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs and autoimmunity. Whereas the cause is unknown, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor-beta have been postulated to play a major part in the fibrosis. To investigate the part played by these cytokines, we prepared TSK/+ mice with a targeted mutation in the(More)
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses defined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity to cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen (CneF) can be either protective or nonprotective against an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. The protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal DTH responses are induced by different immunogens and have differing(More)