Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities… (More)
Although pasteurization eliminates pathogens and consumption of nonpasteurized dairy products is uncommon, dairy-associated disease outbreaks continue to occur. To determine the association of outbreaks caused by nonpasteurized dairy products with state laws regarding sale of these products, we reviewed dairy-associated outbreaks during 1993-2006. We found… (More)
BACKGROUND Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is the causal agent for more than 96,000 cases of diarrheal illness and 3,200 infection-attributable hospitalizations annually in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS We defined a confirmed case as a compatible illness in a person with the outbreak strain during 10/07/2011-11/30/2011.… (More)
Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive… (More)
We conducted a case-control study to investigate factors associated with epidemic cholera. Water treatment and handwashing may have been protective, highlighting the need for personal hygiene for cholera prevention in contaminated urban environments. We also found a diverse diet, a possible proxy for improved nutrition, was protective against cholera.
Twenty male schizophrenic patients were given a test dose of chlorpromazine and their subjective response, graded on a syntonic-dysphoric continuum, was recorded at 4, 24, and 48 hours following the test dose. All patients were subsequently treated with an optimal dose of chlorpromazine or thioridazine plus either social skills training or holistic health… (More)
During the early weeks of the cholera outbreak that began in Haiti in October 2010, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors. Drinking treated water was strongly protective against illness. Our results highlight the effectiveness of safe water in cholera control.
Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at… (More)
The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has generated considerable concern among medical and public health professionals. We used a statewide, population-based antimicrobial resistance surveillance system to examine epidemiologic trends for MRSA from outpatients and inpatients in Hawaii. Pediatric and adult patient populations… (More)
ETL and PNNL have been working over the last 18 months on the development of a new radar system for the ARM Program and have recently obtained first results. Images produced by the radar's data system show excellent time height plots of radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and spectral width during a variety of cloud conditions. Results will be significant… (More)