Tracy K. McIntosh

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Experimental fluid-percussion models produce brain injury by rapidly injecting saline into the closed cranium. In the present study we characterize the physiological, histopathological and neurological responses to mechanical brain injury in the rat produced by lateral fluid-percussion injury of graded severity. Physiological experiments (n = 105)(More)
Despite intensive study, the neurobiological basis of epilepsy and persistent memory impairment following traumatic head injury remains unknown. Since abnormalities of the hippocampus are known to be associated with temporal lobe seizures and memory dysfunction, we investigated the effects of experimental traumatic brain injury on hippocampal structure and(More)
This article comprehensively reviews the lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in small animal species with particular emphasis on its validity, clinical relevance and reliability. The LFP model, initially described in 1989, has become the most extensively utilized animal model of TBI (to date, 232 PubMed citations), producing(More)
Although traumatic brain injury is a major cause of symptomatic epilepsy, the mechanism by which it leads to recurrent seizures is unknown. An animal model of posttraumatic epilepsy that reliably reproduces the clinical sequelae of human traumatic brain injury is essential to identify the molecular and cellular substrates of posttraumatic epileptogenesis,(More)
Controlled cortical impact (CCI), using a pneumatically driven impactor to produce traumatic brain injury, has been characterized previously in both the ferret and in the rat. In the present study, we applied this technique to establish and characterize the CCI model of brain injury in another species, the mouse, evaluating cognitive and histopathologic(More)
The frequency of and outcome from acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans are detailed together with a classification of the principal focal and diffuse pathologies, and their mechanisms in extract laboratory models are outlined. Particular emphasis is given to diffuse axonal injury, which is a major determinant of outcome. Cellular and molecular(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is not known how TBI contributes to the onset or progression of this common late life dementia. To address this question, we studied neuropathological and behavioral consequences of single versus repetitive mild TBI (mTBI) in transgenic (Tg) mice (Tg2576) that express(More)
The temporal pattern of apoptosis in the adult rat brain after lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury was characterized using terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry and agarose gel electrophoresis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to brain injury and killed for histological analysis at(More)
The pattern of neuronal injury following lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury in the rat was systematically characterized at sequential time points to identify selectively vulnerable regions and to determine the temporal contribution of primary and delayed neuropathological events. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 28) were killed 10 min, 2 h, 12 h, 24 h,(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)