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Experimental fluid-percussion models produce brain injury by rapidly injecting saline into the closed cranium. In the present study we characterize the physiological, histopathological and neurological responses to mechanical brain injury in the rat produced by lateral fluid-percussion injury of graded severity. Physiological experiments (n = 105)(More)
Despite intensive study, the neurobiological basis of epilepsy and persistent memory impairment following traumatic head injury remains unknown. Since abnormalities of the hippocampus are known to be associated with temporal lobe seizures and memory dysfunction, we investigated the effects of experimental traumatic brain injury on hippocampal structure and(More)
Although traumatic brain injury is a major cause of symptomatic epilepsy, the mechanism by which it leads to recurrent seizures is unknown. An animal model of posttraumatic epilepsy that reliably reproduces the clinical sequelae of human traumatic brain injury is essential to identify the molecular and cellular substrates of posttraumatic epileptogenesis,(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
This article comprehensively reviews the lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in small animal species with particular emphasis on its validity, clinical relevance and reliability. The LFP model, initially described in 1989, has become the most extensively utilized animal model of TBI (to date, 232 PubMed citations), producing(More)
The temporal pattern of apoptosis in the adult rat brain after lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury was characterized using terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry and agarose gel electrophoresis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to brain injury and killed for histological analysis at(More)
Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease family, has been implicated in the neuropathologic sequelae accompanying various neurological disorders. We have characterized the distribution and time course of calpain activation following brain injury in the rat, using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes calpain-generated breakdown products (BDPs) of(More)
Because of the potential relationship between vascular disturbances and secondary tissue damage, we identified areas of brain which exhibited hemorrhage and leakage of protein during the acute stage after experimental brain injury and subsequently studied the development of pathologic changes, including cavity formation, neuronal necrosis, and gliosis(More)
Although atrophic changes have been well described following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, little is known concerning the mechanisms or progression of brain tissue loss. In the present study, we evaluated the temporal profile of histopathological changes following parasagittal fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury in rats over 1 year postinjury.(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is not known how TBI contributes to the onset or progression of this common late life dementia. To address this question, we studied neuropathological and behavioral consequences of single versus repetitive mild TBI (mTBI) in transgenic (Tg) mice (Tg2576) that express(More)