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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell type determines two distinct spatial budding patterns. Haploid cells exhibit an axial pattern, whereas diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. Axl1, a member of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) family, is the key morphological determinant for the haploid axial pattern. Here we identified a novel gene, RAX1, specifically(More)
GTPases are widespread in directing cytoskeletal rearrangements and affecting cellular organization. How they do so is not well understood. Yeast cells divide by budding, which occurs in two spatially programmed patterns, axial or bipolar [1-3]. Cytoskeletal polarization to form a bud is governed by the Ras-like GTPase, Bud1/Rsr1, in response to cortical(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) is a member of the FGF family with potential for use in several different therapeutic categories. In this work, we provide the first structural characterization of FGF20 using a wide variety of approaches. Like other members of the FGF family, FGF20 appears to possess a beta-trefoil structure. The effect of pH on the(More)
A series of insertion patterns for chemically modified nucleotides [2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe), 2'-fluoro (2'-F), methoxyethyl (MOE), locked nucleic acid (LNA), and G-Clamp] within antisense gapmers is studied in vitro and in vivo in the context of the glucocorticoid receptor. Correlation between lipid transfection and unassisted (gymnotic--using no transfection(More)
JNK1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1) plays a crucial role in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance and is implicated in the pathology of Type 2 diabetes. Its partner, JIP1 (JNK-interacting protein 1), serves a scaffolding function that facilitates JNK1 activation by MKK4 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase 4] and MKK7 (MAPK kinase 7).(More)
Soluble ligands have commonly been targeted by antibody therapeutics for cancers and other diseases. Although monoclonal antibodies targeting such ligands can block their interactions with their cognate receptors, they can also significantly increase the half-life of their ligands by FcRn-mediated antibody recycling, thereby evading ligand renal clearance(More)
The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a key component of the transcription complex regulating glucagon driven hepatic glucose production and previous evidence suggests that "inhibition" of CRTC2 improves glucose homeostasis in multiple rodent models of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe a process(More)
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