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Sketching is a natural form of human communication and has become an increasingly popular tool for interacting with user interfaces. In order to facilitate the integration of sketching into traditional user interfaces, we must first develop accurate ways of recognizing users' intentions while providing feedback to catch recognition problems early in the(More)
We have created and tested Tahuti, a dual-view sketch recognition environment for class diagrams in UML. The system is based on a multi-layer recognition framework which recognizes multi-stroke objects by their geometrical properties allowing users the freedom to draw naturally as they would on paper rather than requiring the user to draw the objects in a(More)
We have created LADDER, the first language to describe how sketched diagrams in a domain are drawn, displayed, and edited. The difficulty in creating such a language is choosing a set of predefined entities that is broad enough to support a wide range of domains, while remaining narrow enough to be comprehensible. The language consists of predefined shapes,(More)
Sketch recognition systems are currently being developed for many domains, but can be time consuming to build if they are to handle the intricacies of each domain. In order to aid sketch-based user interface developers, we have developed tools to simplify the development of a new sketch recognition interface. We created LADDER, a language to describe how(More)
When asked to draw, many people are hesitant because they consider themselves unable to draw well. This paper describes the first system for a computer to provide direction and feedback for assisting a user to draw a human face as accurately as possible from an image. Face recognition is first used to model the features of a human face in an image, which(More)
In this paper we introduce ShortStraw, a simple and highly accurate polyline corner finder. ShortStraw uses a bottom-up approach to find corners by: (1) resampling the points of the stroke, (2) calculating the "straw" distance between the endpoints of a window around each resampled point, and (3) taking the points with the minimum straw distance to be(More)
A recent trend in the popular health news is, reporting the dangers of prolonged inactivity in one's daily routine. The claims are wide in variety and aggressive in nature, linking a sedentary lifestyle with obesity and shortened lifespans [25]. Rather than enforcing an individual to perform a physical exercise for a predefined interval of time, we propose(More)
As pen-based interfaces become more popular in to-day's applications, the need for algorithms to accurately recognize hand-drawn sketches and shapes has increased. In many cases, complex shapes can be constructed hierarchically as a combination of smaller primitive shapes meeting certain geometric constraints. However, in order to construct higher level(More)
Most sketch recognition systems are accurate in recognizing either text or shape (graphic) ink strokes, but not both. Distinguishing between shape and text strokes is, therefore, a critical task in recognizing hand-drawn digital ink diagrams that contain text labels and annotations. We have found the 'en-tropy rate' to be an accurate criterion of(More)