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The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence demonstrating efficacy, tolerability, and safety of seven new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, and zonisamide) in the treatment of children and adults with refractory partial and generalized epilepsies. METHODS A 23-member committee including general(More)
Mutations in the sodium channel genes SCN1A and SCN2A have been identified in monogenic childhood epilepsies, but SCN3A has not previously been investigated as a candidate gene for epilepsy. We screened a consecutive cohort of 18 children with cryptogenic partial epilepsy that was classified as pharmacoresistant because of nonresponse to carbamazepine or(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) as adjunctive therapy in children (4 to 16 years) with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures. METHODS This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial consisted of an 8-week baseline period followed by a 14-week double-blind treatment period. During the treatment period,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate as adjunctive therapy for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BACKGROUND Conventional antiepileptic drugs are frequently ineffective against multiple-seizure types of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. METHODS Ninety-eight patients >1 year to <30 years of(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) treatment strategies vary substantially from one institution to another due to the lack of data to support one treatment over another. To provide guidance for the acute treatment of SE in critically ill patients, the Neurocritical Care Society organized a writing committee to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based and(More)
BACKGROUND Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy syndrome characterized by multiple types of treatment-resistant seizures and high rates of seizure-related injury. Current available treatments are inadequate, leaving patients with few treatment options and opportunities. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized,(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown. Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115). We sequenced the exomes of 264 probands, and their parents,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxcarbazepine (OXC) as adjunctive therapy in children with inadequately controlled partial seizures on one or two concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). BACKGROUND OXC has shown antiepileptic activity in several comparative monotherapy trials in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy, and in a(More)
Zonisamide is a novel anticonvulsant that is structurally and mechanistically unique, compared with other antiepilepsy drugs. Available in Japan and South Korea since 1989, it was approved in the United States in the year 2000 as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in adults. There has been extensive clinical trial and clinical practice experience with(More)