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ER stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in various pathological conditions, but the mechanisms linking ER stress-mediated signaling to downstream apoptotic pathways remain unclear. Using human and mouse cell culture and in vivo mouse models of ER stress-induced apoptosis, we have shown that cytosolic calcium resulting from ER stress induces expression of(More)
Macrophage apoptosis in advanced atheromata, a key process in plaque necrosis, involves the combination of ER stress with other proapoptotic stimuli. We show here that oxidized phospholipids, oxidized LDL, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and lipoprotein(a) trigger apoptosis in ER-stressed macrophages through a mechanism requiring both CD36 and Toll-like(More)
Macrophage apoptosis is an important feature of atherosclerotic plaque development. Research directed at understanding the functional consequences of macrophage death in atherosclerosis has revealed opposing roles for apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaque progression. In early lesions, macrophage apoptosis limits lesion cellularity and suppresses plaque(More)
UNLABELLED Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease(More)
BACKGROUND The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an adaptive survival pathway that protects cells from the buildup of misfolded proteins, but under certain circumstances it can lead to apoptosis. ER stress has been causally associated with macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerosis of mice and(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of advanced atherosclerosis, but its causative role in plaque progression is unknown. In vitro studies have implicated the ER stress effector CHOP in macrophage apoptosis, a process involved in plaque necrosis in advanced atheromata. To test the effect of CHOP deficiency in vivo, aortic root lesions of fat-fed(More)
OBJECTIVE The scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 have been implicated in macrophage foam cell formation during atherogenesis and in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, including those leading to lesional macrophage apoptosis and plaque necrosis. To test the impact of deleting these receptors, we generated Apoe(-/-) mice lacking both SR-A and(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophage apoptosis is a critical process in the formation of necrotic cores in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that macrophage apoptosis in advanced atheromata may be triggered by a combination of endoplasmic reticulum stress and engagement of the type A scavenger receptor, which together induce death(More)
Macrophage pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play key roles in innate immunity, but they also may contribute to disease processes under certain pathological conditions. We recently showed that engagement of the type A scavenger receptor (SRA), a PRR, triggers JNK-dependent apoptosis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stressed macrophages. In advanced(More)
ER stress occurs in macrophage-rich areas of advanced atherosclerotic lesions and contributes to macrophage apoptosis and subsequent plaque necrosis. Therefore, signaling pathways that alter ER stress-induced apoptosis may affect advanced atherosclerosis. Here we placed Apoe-/- mice deficient in macrophage p38alpha MAPK on a Western diet and found that they(More)