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Drosophila Dicer-2 generates small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), whereas Dicer-1 produces microRNAs (miRNAs) from pre-miRNA. What makes the two Dicers specific for their biological substrates? We find that purified Dicer-2 can efficiently cleave pre-miRNA, but that inorganic phosphate and the Dicer-2 partner protein R2D2(More)
Hu proteins bind to adenosine-uridine (AU)-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated regions of many short-lived mRNAs, thereby stabilizing them. Here we report the crystal structures of the first two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of the HuD protein in complex with an 11-nucleotide fragment of a class I ARE (the c-fos ARE; to 1.8 A), and with an(More)
Proteins bind and control mRNAs, directing their localization, translation and stability. Members of the PUF family of RNA-binding proteins control multiple mRNAs in a single cell, and play key roles in development, stem cell maintenance and memory formation. Here we identified the mRNA targets of a S. cerevisiae PUF protein, Puf5p, by(More)
Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate(More)
Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins are characterized by a sequence-specific RNA-binding domain. This unique single-stranded RNA recognition module, whose sequence specificity can be reprogrammed, has been fused with functional modules to engineer protein factors with various functions. We summarize the advances made with respect to developing RNA(More)
Collaboration among the multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of these key regulatory complexes has been limited to single RBPs. We investigated combinatorial translational regulation by Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos), which control development, fertility, and neuronal functions. Our results show how the(More)
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) collaborate to control virtually every aspect of RNA function. Tremendous progress has been made in the area of global assessment of RBP specificity using next-generation sequencing approaches both in vivo and in vitro. Understanding how protein-protein interactions enable precise combinatorial regulation of RNA remains a(More)
Eukaryotes possess a vast array of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that affect mRNAs in diverse ways to control protein expression. Combinatorial regulation of mRNAs by RBPs is emerging as the rule. No example illustrates this as vividly as the partnership of 3 Drosophila RBPs, Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor, which have overlapping functions in development,(More)
ANE syndrome is a ribosomopathy caused by a mutation in an RNA recognition motif of RBM28, a nucleolar protein conserved to yeast (Nop4). While patients with ANE syndrome have fewer mature ribosomes, it is unclear how this mutation disrupts ribosome assembly. Here we use yeast as a model system and show that the mutation confers growth and pre-rRNA(More)
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