Tracey M. Williams

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Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated fuel additive used to decrease carbon monoxide emissions during combustion. MTBE is a nongenotoxic chemical that induces Leydig cell tumors (LCT) in male rats. The mechanism of MTBE-induced LCT is not known; however, LCT induced by other nongenotoxic chemicals have been associated with the disruption of the(More)
Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are(More)
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated fuel additive used to decrease carbon monoxide emissions during gasoline combustion. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that the MTBE-induced decrease in serum testosterone levels in male rats may be due in part to the ability of MTBE to induce the metabolism of endogenous testosterone and(More)
Large inter- and intra-individual variations exist in breastmilk composition, yet factors associated with these variations in the short-term are not well understood. In this study, the effects of breastfeeding on breastmilk cellular and biochemical content were examined. Serial breastmilk samples (∼5 mL) were collected from both breasts of breastfeeding(More)
A mid-infrared human milk analyzer (HMA) is designed to measure the macronutrients in human milk over a wide range of concentrations. Human milk samples (N = 30, 4 different dilutions each) were used to compare the macronutrient levels determined by the HMA to those derived from traditional laboratory methods. There was a small but statistically significant(More)
The creamatocrit (CRCT), a simple, accurate, and inexpensive technique for the estimation of lipid and caloric content in mothers' milk, has been used extensively in lactation research, but has not been integrated into the routine management of clinical lactation problems such as slow weight gain in mothers' milk-fed preterm and term infants. The(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of cesarean section (CS) birth and pethidine for post-CS epidural analgesia on early breastfeeding behavior is unclear. This study aimed to measure infant sucking and breastfeeding behavior in infants of mothers who delivered by CS (CS group) and used pethidine patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) after CS with that of infants(More)
BACKGROUND Infant sucking problems are frequently implicated in early weaning during breastfeeding, yet our understanding of early sucking dynamics is limited. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to describe infant sucking patterns during breastfeeding at secretory activation and determine whether they changed by the time of established lactation. METHODS(More)
Only a few novel classes of antiparasitic drugs have emerged over the last few decades, reflecting the difficulties associated with bringing a safe, effective molecule to market. In recent years, the screening paradigm has shifted from empirical whole parasite screening towards mechanism-based high throughput screening. This approach requires investment in(More)
tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA) is widely used in the manufacturing of certain perfumes, cosmetics, drugs, paint removers, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and industrial solvents. In both rodents and humans, TBA is a major metabolite of MTBE, an oxygenated fuel additive. Chronic TBA exposure causes protein droplet nephropathy, alpha2u-globulin (alpha2u)(More)