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The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) is elicited by water in the larynx and leads to apnea and respiratory disruption in immature animals. The LCR is exaggerated by the elevation of brain temperature within or near the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in decerebrate piglets. Thermal prolongation of reflex apnea elicited by superior laryngeal nerve stimulation(More)
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