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The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of 23 enzymes in man. These enzymes were originally described as cleaving extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates with a predominant role in ECM homeostasis, but it is now clear that they have much wider functionality. Control over MMP and/or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) activity in vivo occurs(More)
The CITED family proteins bind to CBP/p300 transcriptional integrators through their conserved C-terminal acidic domain and function as coactivators. The 21-kDa mouse Cited4 protein, a novel member of the CITED family, interacted with CBP/p300 as well as isoforms of the TFAP2 transcription factor, coactivating TFAP2-dependent transcription. The cited4 gene(More)
OBJECTIVE To use an in vitro model of chondrogenesis to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) with a functional role in cartilage homeostasis. METHODS The expression of miRNAs was measured in the ATDC5 cell model of chondrogenesis using microarray and was verified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MicroRNA expression was localized(More)
The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is important in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation and in the regulation of multiple processes in embryonic development. We have shown previously that PRH contains two domains that can independently bring about transcriptional repression. The PRH homeodomain represses transcription by binding(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the ability of a broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to protect cartilage in vivo, and to explore the effects of class-selective HDAC inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of HDACs on metalloproteinase expression and cartilage degradation in vitro. METHODS A destabilization of the medial(More)
MicroRNAs have been shown to function in cartilage development and homeostasis, as well as in progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the current study was to identify microRNAs involved in the onset or early progression of osteoarthritis and characterise their function in chondrocytes. MicroRNA expression in mouse knee joints post-DMM surgery was(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is proposed as an important factor in osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVE To investigate the expression of the three superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes in OA. METHODS SOD expression was determined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry using human femoral head cartilage. SOD2 expression in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pig(More)
INTRODUCTION The molecular mechanisms underlying cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis are poorly understood. Proteolysis is a key feature in the turnover and degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix where the focus of research has been on the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. However, there is strong evidence to indicate important roles for(More)
mRNA profiling is routinely used to identify microRNA targets, however, this high-throughput technology is not suitable for identifying targets regulated only at protein level. Here, we have developed and validated a novel methodology based on computational analysis of promoter sequences combined with mRNA microarray experiments to reveal transcription(More)