Tracee Treadwell

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Public health officials continue to develop and implement new types of ongoing surveillance systems in an attempt to detect aberrations in surveillance data as early as possible. In public health surveillance, aberrations are traditionally defined as an observed value being greater than an expected historical value for that same time period. To account for(More)
Syndromic surveillance refers to methods relying on detection of individual and population health indicators that are discernible before confirmed diagnoses are made. In particular, prior to the laboratory confirmation of an infectious disease, ill persons may exhibit behavioral patterns, symptoms, signs, or laboratory findings that can be tracked through a(More)
This report describes the first case of naturally acquired inhalation anthrax in the United States since 1976. The patient's clinical course included adjunctive treatment with human anthrax immunoglobulin. Clinical correlation of serologic assays for the lethal factor component of lethal toxin and anti-protective antigen immunoglobulin G are also presented.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most severe tickborne infection in the United States and is a nationally notifiable disease. Since 1981, the annual case-fatality ratio for RMSF has been determined from laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a description is given of patients with(More)
In response to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the United States established national surveillance using a sensitive case definition incorporating clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory criteria. Of 1,460 unexplained respiratory illnesses reported by state and local health departments to the Centers for Disease Control and(More)
During 1993 through 1996, 2,313 cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by 42 states and the District of Columbia through the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS). During this same interval, 1,752 case report forms (CRFs) were submitted to CDC and(More)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics,(More)
BACKGROUND The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, New York, prompted an unprecedented rescue and recovery response. Operations were conducted around the clock, involved over 5000 workers per day, and extended into months following the attacks. The City of New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the(More)
Public health investigators have successfully carried out epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks of disease for many years. By far the majority of these outbreaks have occurred naturally. With the recent illnesses resulting from deliberate dissemination of B. anthracis on an unsuspecting population, public health investigation of diseases must now(More)
After public notification of confirmed cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emergency Operations Center responded to 11,063 bioterrorism-related telephone calls from October 8 to November 11, 2001. Most calls were inquiries from the public about anthrax vaccines (58.4%), requests for general information on(More)