Toyoshi Inoguchi

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Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury. However, the pathological role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes or in the insulin-resistant state remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid(More)
In the present study, we have measured protein kinase C (PKC) specific activities and total diacylglycerol (DAG) level in the aorta and heart of rats, which showed that after 2 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, membranous PKC specific activity and total DAG content were increased significantly by 88% and 40% in the aorta and by 21% and 72% in(More)
Hyperglycemia seems to be an important causative factor in the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on vascular cells. Both protein kinase C (PKC) activation and oxidative stress theories have increasingly received attention in(More)
Similar vascular pathological conditions are observed in diabetic animals and those with diet-induced hypergalactosemia. Both diabetes and hypergalactosemia are believed to cause vascular dysfunction via a common biochemical mechanism. In this study, we have found that both diabetes and hypergalactosemia in the short term (2-4 months) can increase total(More)
Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that is expressed early during adipose differentiation. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of ADRP in adipose differentiation. In murine fibroblasts infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ADRP fusion protein expression adenovirus vector, confocal(More)
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) is usually evaluated by eye measurement under B-scope carotid artery ultrasonography. However, the axial resolution of this system is >/=0.1 mm, which causes difficulties in respect to accuracy and reproducibility. We evaluated a newly developed B-scope(More)
This study was undertaken to reveal the role of NAD(P)H oxidase in increased oxidative stress in islets of Type 2 diabetes. Immunostaining analysis showed that staining intensities of NAD(P)H oxidase components, gp91phox and p22phox, significantly increased in islets of animal models of Type 2 diabetes, OLETF rats (60 weeks of age) and db/db mice (14 weeks(More)
We recently found a markedly lower prevalence of vascular complications, including kidney disease, in diabetic patients with Gilbert syndrome, a congenital form of hyperbilirubinemia, suggesting a beneficial effect of bilirubin (BIL) on diabetic nephropathy. To directly examine this, we determined whether hereditary hyperbilirubinemic Gunn j/j rats and(More)
The increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) level and protein kinase C (PKC) activity have been characterized biochemically and functionally in the retina and the brain of diabetic rats as well as in cultured vascular cells. PKC specific activities were increased in the membraneous fraction of retina from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the(More)
Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here, we report oxidative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and accumulation of mtDNA with a 4,834-bp deletion in kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. At 8 weeks after the onset of diabetes, levels of(More)