Tow C. Chong

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Phase-change random-access memory (PCRAM) is one of the leading candidates for next-generation data-storage devices, but the trade-off between crystallization (writing) speed and amorphous-phase stability (data retention) presents a key challenge. We control the crystallization kinetics of a phase-change material by applying a constant low voltage via(More)
A phase-change nanolithography technique is developed to fabricate up to millions of two-/ three-dimensional nanostructures ͑ϳ50 nm͒ over a large area at a high speed by combining femtosecond laser, microlens array, and wet etching process. Near-field scanning optical microscopy, electrical force microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to(More)
Laser-crystallized features were produced on as-deposited amorphous phase-change films by laser irradiation through a microlens array, which is a highly efficient patterning method since arbitrary features can be created uniformly over a large area in a short time. An Nd:YAG laser and a femtosecond laser were used as light sources. The dependence of feature(More)
(Non-DSI), "Assessing diffusion barriers for phase change memory devices using the magnetization of Fe", "Bistable perpendicular switching with in-plane spin polarization and without external fields", Physics (Non-DSI), "Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld(More)
It is shown that the cross talk in three-dimensional optical photochemical recording results in ineffectiveness of single-photon recording. For two-photon recording for a given allowed cross-talk level there are optimal distances between spots that provide the maximum memory density. Estimations show that real restrictions here are connected with the(More)
In this work, the thermal and electrical performances of chalcogenide-based phase change memory cell were investigated. We have investigated the current reduction issue for CRAM cell theoretically and experimentally. It was found that the value of programming current is highly dependent on the materials and device structure. The effects of materials and(More)
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