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We have obtained a novel transcriptional cofactor, termed undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1), from F9 embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. This protein is expressed in EC and embryonic stem cells, as well as in germ line tissues, but could not be detected in any of the other adult mouse tissues tested. Furthermore, when EC cells are(More)
The pores of ion channel proteins are often modeled as static structures. In this view, selectivity reflects rigidly constrained backbone orientations. Such a picture is at variance with the generalization that biological proteins are flexible, capable of major internal motions on biologically relevant time scales. We tested for motions in the sodium(More)
Endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is a critical event in the generation of the endocardial cushion, the primordia of the valves and septa of the adult heart. This embryonic phenomenon occurs in the outflow tract (OT) and atrioventricular (AV) canal of the embryonic heart in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, and is initiated by putative(More)
The POU transcription factor Oct-3/4 has been shown to be critical for maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cell character. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its function remain elusive. We have previously shown that among the POU transcription factor family of proteins, Oct-3/4 alone is able to bind to the regulatory region of the UTF1 gene bearing a(More)
1. Sodium channels mediate fast depolarization and conduct electrical impulses throughout nerve, muscle and heart. This paper reviews the links between sodium channel structure and function. 2. Sodium channels have a modular architecture, with distinct regions for the pore and the gates. The separation is far from absolute, however, with extensive(More)
The P segments of the voltage-dependent Na+ channel line the outer mouth and selectivity filter of the pore. The residues that form the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore of the channel have not been identified. To study the structure of the inner pore mouth, the presumed selectivity filter residues (D400, E755, K1237, and A1529), and three amino acids just(More)
Oleanolic acid (1) was identified as an anti-HIV principle from several plants, including Rosa woodsii (leaves), Prosopis glandulosa (leaves and twigs), Phoradendron juniperinum (whole plant), Syzygium claviflorum (leaves), Hyptis capitata (whole plant), and Ternstromia gymnanthera (aerial part). It inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected H9 cells(More)
During early vertebrate development, Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) are involved in various developmental processes. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal expression patterns of ROCK1 protein and examined the role of ROCK during initial heart myofibrillogenesis in cultured chick blastoderm. Immunohistochemistry showed that ROCK1 protein was distributed in(More)
Healthy adults who had not been exposed to antimicrobial agents for the preceding 4 weeks were examined for intestinal carriage of Clostridium difficile. The 1234 individuals examined were composed of seven groups: three classes of university students, hospital workers at two hospitals, employees of a company and self-defence force personnel at a local(More)
In the early embryonic heart, endothelial cells in atrioventricular (AV) and outflow tract (OT) regions are transformed into the invasive mesenchymal cells that form endocardial cushion tissue (endothelial-mesenchymal transformation). It has been reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are transcribed in the AV and OT regions of the embryonic mouse(More)