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PURPOSE In moving target irradiation with pencil beam scanning, the interplay effect between the target motion and the scanned beam is a problem because this effect causes over or under dosage in the target volume. To overcome this, we have studied rescanning using a gating technique. METHODS A simulation and experimental study was carried out. In the(More)
PURPOSE A project to construct a new treatment facility, as an extension of the existing HIMAC facility, has been initiated for the further development of carbon-ion therapy at NIRS. This new treatment facility is equipped with a 3D irradiation system with pencil-beam scanning. The challenge of this project is to realize treatment of a moving target by(More)
Treatment plans of carbon-ion radiotherapy have been made on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously irrespective to the dose delivery time as well as the interruption time. The advanced therapeutic techniques such as a hypofractionation and a respiratory gating usually require more time to deliver a fractioned dose than conventional(More)
PURPOSE Irradiation of a moving target with a scanning beam requires a comprehensive understanding of organ motion as well as a robust dose error mitigation technique. The authors studied the effects of intrafractional respiratory motion for carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with phase-controlled rescanning on dose distributions for lung tumors. To address(More)
We try to elucidate whether a carbon ion beam alone or in combination with gemcitabine has advantages over X-ray in targeting putative pancreatic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Colony, spheroid formation and tumorigenicity assays confirmed that CD44+/ESA+ cells sorted from PANC1 and PK45 cells have more CSC properties than CD44-/ESA-(More)
Our institution established a new treatment facility for carbon ion beam scanning therapy in 2010. The major advantages of scanning beam treatment compared to the passive beam treatment are the following: high dose conformation with less excessive dose to the normal tissues, no bolus compensator and patient collimator/multi-leaf collimator, better dose(More)
Our institute has constructed a new treatment facility for carbon ion scanning beam therapy. The first clinical trials were successfully completed at the end of November 2011. To evaluate patient setup accuracy, positional errors between the reference Computed Tomography (CT) scan and final patient setup images were calculated using 2D-3D registration(More)
At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 8,000 patients have been treated for various tumors with carbon-ion (C-ion) radiotherapy in the past 20 years based on a radiobiologically defined clinical-dose system. Through clinical experience, including extensive dose escalation studies, optimum dose-fractionation protocols have been(More)
Amplitude-based gating aids treatment planning in scanned particle therapy because it gives better control of uncertainty with the gate window. We have installed an X-ray fluoroscopic imaging system in our treatment room for clinical use with an amplitude-based gating strategy. We evaluated the effects of this gating under realistic organ motion conditions(More)
PURPOSE In radiotherapy with a scanned carbon-ion beam, its Bragg peak is shifted along the depth direction either by inserting the range shifter plates or by changing the beam-extraction energy of a synchrotron. In the former technique (range shifter scanning: RS), the range shifter plates broaden the beam size and produce secondary fragments through(More)