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The chicken retina contains rhodopsin (a rod visual pigment) and four kinds of cone visual pigments. The primary structures of chicken red (iodopsin) and rhodopsin have been determined previously. Here we report isolation of three cDNA clones encoding additional pigments from a chicken retinal cDNA library. Based on the partial amino acid sequences of the(More)
Examined hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) function in 30 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by measuring the diurnal variation and response to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) of saliva cortisol. Normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm was found in only 43.3% of the ADHD children. DST showed suppression in(More)
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates. In many cases, the pineal gland retains photic input and endocrinal-output pathways both linked tightly to the oscillator. This contrasts well with the mammalian pineal gland equipped only with the output of melatonin(More)
A circadian pacemaker generates a rhythm with a period of approximately 24 hr even in the absence of environmental time cues. Several photosensitive neuronal tissues such as the retina and pineal gland contain the autonomous circadian pacemaker together with the photic-input pathway responsible for entrainment of the pacemaker to the daily light/dark cycle.(More)
Relations are determined between one of the important subjective attributes of concert hall acoustics, the apparent source width, ASW, and three acoustical measures, interaural cross-correlation coefficient IACCE, LFE, and strength factor G. Although these measures previously have been found to correlate with ASW, their relations with it have not been(More)
A variety of animals use Earth's magnetic field as a reference for their orientation behaviour. Although distinctive magnetoreception mechanisms have been postulated for many migrating or homing animals, the molecular mechanisms are still undefined. In this study, we found that zebrafish, a model organism suitable for genetic manipulation, responded to a(More)
Pinopsin is a blue-sensitive photoreceptive molecule possibly involved in photic entrainment of the circadian pacemaker in the chicken pineal gland. To characterize pinopsin as a circadian photoreceptor, antibodies were raised against the C-terminal portion of pinopsin. As expected from the divergence of the amino acid sequence of this region, the resultant(More)
In concert halls early reflections combine with the direct sound and with reverberation to determine the subjective rating of a room's acoustics. Of interest is how variations in the amplitudes of these early reflections are related to the subjectively just-noticeable differences (jnd) in several important acoustical parameters for their wide range(More)
In avian pinealocytes, an environmental light signal resets the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker that controls the rhythmic production of melatonin. Investigation of the pineal phototransduction pathway should therefore reveal the molecular mechanism of the biological clock. The presence of rhodopsin-like photoreceptive pigment, transducin-like(More)
The Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko), a nocturnal lizard, has two kinds of visual pigments, P467 and P521. In spite of the pure-rod morphology of the photoreceptor cells, the biochemical properties of P521 and P467 resemble those of iodopsin (the chicken red-sensitive cone visual pigment) and rhodopsin, respectively. We have found that the amino acid sequence of(More)