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To design hybrid tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) applicable to systemic anti-tumour therapeutic use, we assessed the relationships among the molecular size of hybrid TNF-alpha, in vitro bioactivity and in vivo anti-tumour potency. Natural human TNF-alpha was covalently modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of various number-average molecular(More)
This study was conducted to increase the anti-tumour potency and reduce the toxic side-effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Natural human TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) using succinimidyl coupling of lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha. The number-average molecular weight of PEG-modified TNF-alpha(More)
Cell sorting is an essential and efficient experimental tool for the isolation and characterization of target cells. A three-dimensional environment is crucial in determining cell behavior and cell fate in biological analysis. Herein, we have applied photodegradable hydrogels to optical cell separation from a 3D environment using a computer-controlled light(More)
This paper describes the generation of "click-crosslinkable" and "photodegaradable" gelatin hydrogels from the reaction between dibenzocycloctyl-terminated photoclevable tetra-arm polyethylene glycol and azide-modified gelatin. The hydrogels were formed in 30 min through the click-crosslinking reaction. The micropatterned features in the hydrogels were(More)
Control of cell adhesion and detachment on the micrometer scale is an important issue for understanding cell-substrate or cell-cell interaction. We synthesized a photocleavable crosslinker, which composed of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), photocleavable nitrobenzyl groups and amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester groups. The photocleavable(More)
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