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Mutations in the gene encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein ( COMP) cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). More than 40 mutations have been identified; however, genotype-phenotype relationships are not well delineated. Further, mutations other than in-frame insertion/deletions and(More)
OBJECTIVE To regenerate permanent cartilage, it is crucial to know not only the necessary conditions for chondrogenesis, but also the sufficient conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the signal sufficient for chondrogenesis. METHODS Embryonic stem cells that had been engineered to fluoresce upon chondrocyte differentiation were treated(More)
Chondrocyte hypertrophy followed by cartilage matrix degradation and vascular invasion, characterized by expression of type X collagen (COL10A1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, are central steps of endochondral ossification during normal skeletal growth and osteoarthritis development. A(More)
Since interaction between bone and lipid metabolism has been suggested, this study investigated the regulation of bone metabolism by adiponectin, a representative adipokine, by analyzing deficient and overexpressing transgenic mice. We initially confirmed that adiponectin and its receptors were expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, indicating(More)
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the spine is a subset of "bone-forming" diseases, characterized by ectopic ossification in the spinal ligaments. OPLL is a common disorder among elderly populations in eastern Asia and is the leading cause of spinal myelopathy in Japan. We performed a genomewide linkage study with 142 affected(More)
Chondrocyte differentiation is strictly regulated by various transcription factors, including Runx2 and Runx3; however, the physiological role of Runx1 in chondrocyte differentiation remains unknown. To examine the role of Runx1, we generated mesenchymal-cell-specific and chondrocyte-specific Runx1-deficient mice [Prx1 Runx1(f/f) mice and alpha1(II)(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases in the elderly. Although its pathophysiology is complex and its molecular basis remains to be determined, much evidence suggests that OA has strong genetic determinants. To search for susceptibility loci of OA, we selected seven candidate genes encoding cartilage-specific collagens (type II, IX, X, and(More)
Here we examine the roles of two isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), GSK-3α and GSK-3β, in skeletal development. Both isoforms were unphosphorylated and active in chondrocyte differentiation stages during SOX9 and type II collagen (COL2A1) expression. Although knock-out of both alleles of Gsk3a (Gsk3a(-/-)) or a single allele of Gsk3b(More)
Schwann cells are an important cell source for regenerative therapy for neural disorders. We investigated the role of the transcription factor sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 10 (SOX10) in the proliferation and myelination of Schwann cells. SOX10 is predominantly expressed in rat sciatic nerve-derived Schwann cells and is induced shortly after birth.(More)
Bone mass and turnover are maintained by the coordinated balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, under regulation of many systemic and local factors. Phosphoinositide-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase Akt is one of the key players in the signaling of potent bone anabolic factors. This study initially showed(More)