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Skilled interactions with new environments require flexible changes to the transformation from somatosensory signals to motor outputs. Transcortical reflex gains are known to be modulated according to task and environmental dynamics, but the mechanism of this modulation remains unclear. We examined reflex organization in the sensorimotor cortex. Subjects(More)
Purkinje cells of the cerebellum discharge complex spikes, named after the complexity of their waveforms, with a frequency of approximately 1 Hz during arm movements. Despite the low frequency of firing, complex spikes have been proposed to contribute to the initiation of arm movements or to the gradual improvement of motor skills. Here we recorded the(More)
Accurate reaching toward a visual target is disturbed after the visual field is displaced by prisms but recovers with practice. When the prisms are removed, subjects misreach in the direction opposite to the prism displacement (aftereffect). The present study demonstrated that the severity of the aftereffect depends on the velocity of the movements during(More)
It is known that somatosensory reflex during voluntary arm movement is modulated anticipatorily according to given tasks or environments. However, when and how reflex amplitude is set remains controversial. Is the reflex modulation completed preparatorily before movement execution or does it vary with the movement? Is the reflex amplitude coded in a(More)
Although speech articulation relies heavily on the sensorimotor processing, little is known about its brain control mechanisms. Here, we investigate, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, whether the motor cortex contributes to the generation of quick sensorimotor responses involved in speech motor coordination. By applying a jaw-lowering perturbation,(More)
The experimental design included three conditions in which the sounds produced by tapping with one's hand on a surface were spatially manipulated. Zero Distance (0D): the tapping sound originated at the tapping location; Double Distance (2D): the sound originated at double the distance to the tapping location; and Quadruple Distance (4D): the sound(More)
Human brain uses visual motion inputs not only for generating subjective sensation of motion but also for directly guiding involuntary actions. For instance, during arm reaching, a large-field visual motion is quickly and involuntarily transformed into a manual response in the direction of visual motion (manual following response, MFR). Previous attempts to(More)
Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements(More)
Speech perception is thought to be linked to speech motor production. This linkage is considered to mediate multimodal aspects of speech perception, such as audio-visual and audio-tactile integration. However, direct coupling between articulatory movement and auditory perception has been little studied. The present study reveals a clear dissociation between(More)