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The results of the second phase of the Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino measurement are presented and compared to the first phase. The solar neutrino flux spectrum and time-variation as 2 well as oscillation results are statistically consistent with the first phase and do not show spectral distortion. The time-dependent flux measurement of the combined first(More)
A high-performance speed control system for cage induction motors is described which utilizes a PWM inverter. The effects of primary current coincidence and machine constant variation on system characteristics such as response time, torque precision, and operating noise were investigated. Based on the results obtained, new control methods have been devised;(More)
We develop a new data assimilation algorithm by employing a heuristic optimization approach named very fast simulated re-annealing (VFSA), which is capable of minimizing the cost function without using the adjoint model. The method is independent on model operator and observation operator, and has advantages in dealing with strong nonlinearities and(More)
—Soil moisture is the central focus of land surface and atmospheric modeling because it controls surface water and energy fluxes and consequently affects land–atmosphere interactions. Although global or regional satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available, knowledge about assimilating them into numerical weather prediction (NWP)(More)
[1] Soil moisture is a very important variable in land surface processes. Both field moisture measurements and estimates from modeling have their limitations when being used to estimate soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Remote sensing is becoming a practical method to estimate soil moisture globally; however, the quality of current soil surface(More)
Autumn coloring of deciduous broad-leaved trees in northern Japan was found to develop either from the inner part of the crown outward (inner-type), or from the outer part of the crown inward (outer-type). Inner-type trees had early-successional characteristics, whereas outer-type trees had late-successional characteristics. Although alders (Alnus hirsuta(More)