Toshio Koike

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We develop a new data assimilation algorithm by employing a heuristic optimization approach named very fast simulated re-annealing (VFSA), which is capable of minimizing the cost function without using the adjoint model. The method is independent on model operator and observation operator, and has advantages in dealing with strong nonlinearities and(More)
—Soil moisture is the central focus of land surface and atmospheric modeling because it controls surface water and energy fluxes and consequently affects land–atmosphere interactions. Although global or regional satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available, knowledge about assimilating them into numerical weather prediction (NWP)(More)