Toshio Kitamura

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Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts as an antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Levels of adiponectin in the blood are decreased under conditions of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. We show here that MD-2−/− mice do not respond to LPS, do survive endotoxic shock but are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. We found(More)
Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
Most of the human genome has now been sequenced and about 30,000 potential open reading frames have been identified, indicating that we use these 30,000 genes to functionally organize our biologic activities. However, functions of many genes are still unknown despite intensive efforts using bioinformatics as well as transgenic and knockout mice.(More)
In programmed cell death, a large number of cells undergo apoptosis, and are engulfed by macrophages to avoid the release of noxious materials from the dying cells. In definitive erythropoiesis, nuclei are expelled from erythroid precursor cells and are engulfed by macrophages. Phosphatidylserine is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and on the(More)
Cell division is finely controlled by various molecules including small G proteins and kinases/phosphatases. Among these, Aurora B, RhoA, and the GAP MgcRacGAP have been implicated in cytokinesis, but their underlying mechanisms of action have remained unclear. Here, we show that MgcRacGAP colocalizes with Aurora B and RhoA, but not Rac1/Cdc42, at the(More)
Axon guidance proteins are critical for the correct wiring of the nervous system during development. Several axon guidance cues and their family members have been well characterized. More unidentified axon guidance cues are assumed to participate in the formation of the extremely complex nervous system. We identified a secreted protein, draxin, that shares(More)
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that neonatal heterozygous KLF5 knockout mice exhibit a marked deficiency in white adipose tissue development, suggesting that KLF5 is also required for adipogenesis. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, KLF5(More)
Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in a variety of tissues in the adult human body (e.g., bone marrow [BM], kidney, lung, and liver). These cells are also present in the fetal environment (e.g., blood, liver, BM, and kidney). However, MSCs are a rare population in these tissues. Here we tried to identify cells with MSC-like(More)
To identify regulators of AU-rich element (ARE)-dependent mRNA turnover we have followed a genetic approach using a mutagenized cell line (slowC) that fails to degrade cytokine mRNA. Accordingly, a GFP reporter construct whose mRNA is under control of the ARE from interleukin-3 gives an increased fluorescence signal in slowC. Here we describe rescue of(More)